A gas meter is a specialized flow meter, used to measure the volume of fuel gases such as natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, Gas meters are used at residential, commercial, and industrial buildings that consume fuel gas supplied by a gas utility,
Gases are more difficult to measure than liquids, because measured volumes are highly affected by temperature and pressure. Gas meters measure a defined volume, regardless of the pressurized quantity or quality of the gas flowing through the meter. Temperature, pressure, and heating value compensation must be made to measure actual amount and value of gas moving through a meter.
Several different designs of gas meters are in common use, depending on the volumetric flow rate of gas to be measured, the range of flows anticipated, the type of gas being measured, and other factors. Gas meters that exist in colder climates in buildings built prior to the 1970s were typically located inside the home, typically in the basement or garage.
- 0.1 What is flowmeter pulse output?
- 0.2 What are the two types of water meters?
- 0.3 What is a pulse unit?
- 0.4 How does a pulse flow meter work?
- 1 How does a pulse signal work?
- 2 What is the most common water meter?
- 3 What are the different kinds of water meters?
- 4 What does pulse measure and why is it important?
- 5 What is the normal pulse value?
- 6 What is the output pulse frequency?
What is flowmeter pulse output?
Flow meters Flow meters typically come in two varieties- pulse output or 4-20 milliamp DC current output. Either the pulse signal or 4-20 mA signal is connected to the proper input on the Micro- Comm PLC. A pulse output type flow meter means that a single DC pulse from the meter represents a number of gallons.
- Based on the manufacturer, a single pulse could represent one gallon or as many as ten per pulse.
- Usually this information is printed on the meter head or elsewhere in the documentation.
- Testing of a pulse type meter connected to a Micro- Comm RTU will require the use of a voltmeter that has the capability to measure frequency in hertz.
The frequency is cycles per second, so to calculate GPM, multiply the frequency reading on the voltmeter by 60. Then, multiply by the pulse per gallon number specified by the flow meter manufacturer. The 4-20 mA type flow meter will provide a flow rate where 4 milliamps is zero flow and 20 milliamps is the full scale output.
- Any current in between algebraically can be calculated to represent gallons per minute.
- To calculate flow, use a voltmeter set to read DC milliamps.
- Take the number you read and subtract 4.
- Divide that number by 16 and you will have a decimal/percentage.
- Multiply that percentage by the full scale output of the meter to determine the current flow rate.
Example: Your measurement shows 11.23 milliamps. Full scale output of the flow meter is 1000 gallons per minute.11.23 mA subtract 4 = 7.23 mA 7.23 divided by 16 =,452,452 X 1000 = 452 gallons per minute. Troubleshooting It is rare that a flow meter will give erroneous readings, although it does happen.
More often, a pulse type meter will break and not give any signal at all. A 4-20 mA output meter may give a low value like zero, or well below the 4mA minimum. In some cases, the meter may put out current in excess of 20mA. In any case, if you read current well above 20mA or below 4mA, there is most likely a problem with the meter output unit.
M1500, M1550, M1650, S3000, S4000, S4500 and similar PLCs have a light associated with the pulse input that will flash when the RTU is receiving a pulsing signal from the flow meter. Consult your RTU drawing to determine exactly where the flow meter in question is wired in so you can verify the correct light is flashing.
What are the two types of water meters?
Common Water Meter Types – There are two conventional measuring devices for water flow measurement, the positive displacement water meter and the velocity meter. Less common options include non-mechanical designs of electromagnetic and ultrasonic meters and electromechanical meters.
What is a pulse unit?
Your pulse is usually called your heart rate, which is the number of times your heart beats each minute (bpm).
How does a pulse flow meter work?
An Introduction to Pulse Output Flowmeter Devices | JLC International Within the industry, the use of pulse output devices to signal flow is commonplace, and we often assume all our customers are also familiar with them. However, across the diverse application areas we serve, this is not always the case. Graphic presentation of pulsation signal Titan Enterprises produce five main types of pulse generating flowmeters, each of which output in proportion to the flow from the meter. These comprise Hall Effect transistors, Reed switches, Namur sensor, and an optical detector, all of which are activated by a rotating turbine or gear from our mechanical meters. Hall Effect sensor devices offer fantastic stability and lifespan, as well as being able to operate at high frequency. They use solid-state transistors to allow power to pass through in one direction when activated by a magnetic field passing across them. They operate as NPN “sinking” or PNP “sourcing.” An NPN “sinking” sensor requires a “Pull up” resistor across the positive power and the pulse output wire. When the NPN transistor is inactive, the energy flows to the pulse output wire via the resistor.
When activated by a magnet in the rotating turbine or gear, the NPN sinks to the zero volt wire, and the signal output value drops. As flow passes through the meter, the sensor is continually switched on and off in proportion, giving the pulse output. PNP or “sourcing” Hall Effect sensors operate in reverse and the Resistor (Pull Down), is placed between the Pulse output wire and the zero volts.
When activated, the power switches from the zero volts to the pulse output wire.
How does a pulse signal work?
A pulse in signal processing is a rapid, transient change in the amplitude of a signal from a baseline value to a higher or lower value, followed by a rapid return to the baseline value.
What is a non pulsed water meter?
MKSJ Single Jet Cold Water Meter – Non Pulsed / / / MKSJ Single Jet Cold Water Meter – Non Pulsed The Metron range of WRAS and MID approved single-jet dry dial water meters are designed to measure the flow and quantity of cold water of the temperature up to 30°C or hot water of the temperature up to 90°C.
- Communication protocols such as pulse, RF and MBUS outputs enables remote readings to be used in conjunction with a wide range of building management systems (BMS).
- The construction of the water meter gives the possibility of its installation both in a horizontal position with the counter directed upward (H) and in a vertical position with the counter directed aside (V).Thanks to the use of a rotary counter enabling easy readings, it perfectly proves itself in different assembly positions.
SKU: MKSJ-COLD-NP Category: Meter Type: Single Jet Connection Type: Male BSP Accuracy: R100 H R50 V Class 2 Approvals: WRAS, MID Features: Dry dial, frost resistant, rotating head Installation: Horizontal/Vertical
|Model Name||Size (mm)||Max Temp||Extra Info|
|15MM||30C||1.5 Nominal Flow M3/H|
|20MM||30C||2.5 Nominal Flow M3/H|
|25MM||50C||3.5 Nominal Flow M3/H|
MKSJ Single Jet Cold Water Meter – Non Pulsed
What is the most common water meter?
Displacement water meters, often called Positive Displacement (PD) meters, are the most common water meters for residential and small commercial properties. They’re great for measuring small volumes of water at low flow rates.
What type of water meter is commonly used in our homes?
Displacement Water Meters – A displacement water meter is the variant most commonly used in residential applications as well as certain small commercial operations. Displacement water meters, also referred to as Positive Displacement meters, can be divided into two subcategories: oscillating piston and nutating disk meters.
What are the different kinds of water meters?
Understanding the Different Types of Water Meters – Smart Water Meters for residential and commercial buildings Metering Technology Water meters of different types are available in the market – Positive Displacement, Electromagnetic, Ultrasonic, Single and Multi-jet and Turbine flow meters.
- Let us look at the differences in their principles of operation and their advantages and disadvantages.
- Positive Displacement Displacement water meters are the most common water meters for residential and small commercial properties.
- They contain mechanical parts (an oscillating piston) that are displaced, or moved, as water flows through the meter’s main chamber.
These moving parts measure the volume of water and increase the reading on the meter by respective amount. Since these meters come with moving parts: they are prone to failure, noticeable pressure loss, require frequent calibration, record air flow and reverse flow of water and therefore not accurate. Electromagnetic Flow Meter Electromagnetic Flow meters are more common in the commercial and industrial buildings. These are expensive units. Conductivity of the fluid flowing through the pipe must be higher so that magnetic coils can act as conductors. Bubbles of gas that form inside the meter can lead to error. Hence EM flowmeter requires electrical as well as mechanical cleaning at regular intervals. They do not in come in large sizes since they do not have the straight-through flow path needed for the high flow rates used in large pipe diameters. Prone to failure because of moving parts. They record airflow and reverse flow of water. Turbine Flow Meter They are commonly used in large commercial distribution system. Turbine meters are less accurate than displacement and multi-jet meters. Long straight pipe sections are required to be installed. Requires periodic calibration. Prone to failures. Records airflow. Ultrasonic Flow Meter Ultrasonic flow meters come with two transducers which trigger sound waves.
- Sound waves determine the velocity of a water flowing in a pipe.
- Under no flow conditions, the frequencies of an ultrasonic wave transmitted into a pipe and its reflections from the fluid are the same.
- Under flowing conditions, the frequency of the reflected wave is different.
- The transmitter processes signals from the transmitted wave and its reflections to determine the flow rate.
The signal provides the flow velocity and with the known tube cross section, the actual volume of water flowing through the sensor is computed. Since there are no moving parts, ultrasonic meters have long life and require no calibration. These meters have: negligible pressure loss, can measure extremely low flow of 0.1 LPM of water, accuracy >98%, can be installed in any direction, unaffected by air flow and reverse flow of water. Because of all the above benefits, ultrasonic water meters have become extremely popular choice in the various applications of water metering. WEGoT is proud to be the only company in the India manufacturing its own ultrasonic water meters. IoT enabled Ultrasonic Water Sensor WEGoT Ultrasonic Water meters are called as water sensors since they have no moving parts, are IoT enabled and sends data to the cloud in real time. The real time data generated by the sensors are processed in our cloud sensors and accurate and reliable consumption data is made available to the end users. Since these are IoT enabled water sensors, sensor downtimes or failures are immediately notified. This allows service teams to immediately address problems therefore minimizing loss of data. IoT enabled Ultrasonic Water Sensors are the way forward for mass and rapid deployment in residential and commercial segments and WEGoT will be the front runner in deploying these solutions across the country. : Understanding the Different Types of Water Meters – Smart Water Meters for residential and commercial buildings
What is the difference between water meter and flow meter?
The difference between Water Meters and Flow Meters – Though the terms are often quite interchangeable, whilst all water meters are flow meters, not all flow meters are water meters. The main difference being that a water meter measures the volume of water that passes through the meter.
What is a normal pulse meter reading?
What are normal readings? – A normal level of oxygen is usually 95% or higher. Some people with chronic lung disease or sleep apnea can have normal levels around 90%. The “SpO2” reading on a pulse oximeter shows the percentage of oxygen in someone’s blood. If your home SpO2 reading is lower than 95%, call your health care provider. : Oxygen Levels, Pulse Oximeters, and COVID-19
What does pulse measure and why is it important?
Why the Test is Performed – Measuring the pulse gives important information about your health. Any change from your normal heart rate can indicate a health problem. Fast pulse may signal an infection or dehydration, In emergency situations, the pulse rate can help determine if the person’s heart is pumping.
What is the normal pulse value?
A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. Generally, a lower heart rate at rest implies more efficient heart function and better cardiovascular fitness. For example, a well-trained athlete might have a normal resting heart rate closer to 40 beats per minute.
To measure your heart rate, simply check your pulse. Place your index and third fingers on your neck to the side of your windpipe. To check your pulse at your wrist, place two fingers between the bone and the tendon over your radial artery — which is located on the thumb side of your wrist. When you feel your pulse, count the number of beats in 15 seconds.
Multiply this number by four to calculate your beats per minute. Keep in mind that many factors can influence heart rate, including:
- Fitness and activity levels
- Being a smoker
- Having cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol or diabetes
- Air temperature
- Body position (standing up or lying down, for example)
- Body size
Although there’s a wide range of normal, an unusually high or low heart rate may indicate an underlying problem. Consult your doctor if your resting heart rate is consistently above 100 beats a minute (tachycardia) or if you’re not a trained athlete and your resting heart rate is below 60 beats a minute (bradycardia) — especially if you have other signs or symptoms, such as fainting, dizziness or shortness of breath.
What is the benefit of pulse mode?
Pulse mode Essentially, the mode switches the relatively consistent output of most devices by a regular pulsing of output, which occurs every 0.2 seconds as long as you hold down the fire button.
What is the difference between signal and pulse?
Anything you can perceive can be called a signal. a memory, a flash of past, a glimps of future, hotness, coldness, change in height, light, energy of electron, everything can be considered a signal. a pulse, is a subclass, which can be roughly defined like, a part of signal.
Why are pulse sensors used?
The PPG uses a pulse sensor on the fingertip that measures the changes in light absorption and reflection onto the skin to measure blood flow.
What is the output pulse frequency?
Overview – WattNode ® Pulse meters generates pulse at an output frequency proportional to the instantaneous power. The standard full-scale pulse output frequency is 4.0 Hz, but other frequencies are available. Output frequency options are specified either in hertz (up to 600 Hz) or pulses per watt-hour (or kilowatt-hour).
What is pulse output in PLC?
PLCs with frequency or pulse as its available output are called frequency/pulse output PLCs. The pulse output from these types of PLCs is commonly used to specify the movement of a servo or stepper. They are designed to replace traditional control panels that operate based on the electromagnetic logic relays.
What is a good flow meter reading?
What will the results look like? – Peak flow scores will vary depending on your age, your height and whether you’re a man or a woman. The expected values are higher in younger people, taller people and men. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) is measured in litres per minute.
- Normal adult peak flow scores range between around 400 and 700 litres per minute, although scores in older women can be lower and still be normal.
- The most important thing is whether your score is normal for you.
- Health care professionals will be looking to compare your scores over time, to see if your results are going up or down.
Your peak flow reading may vary through the day and night. The amount of variation is important as well as the pattern. Keeping track of your peak flow can help you spot when your symptoms are getting worse and when you need to take your reliever inhaler or get medical help.