What Kind Of Pain Does Prostate Cancer Cause?

What Kind Of Pain Does Prostate Cancer Cause
Symptoms of advanced prostate cancer include: Dull, deep pain or stiffness in your pelvis, lower back, ribs, or upper thighs; pain in the bones of those areas. Loss of weight and appetite. Fatigue, nausea, or vomiting.

Where would you feel pain if you had prostate cancer?

Sciatica is the most common type of referred pain in advanced prostate cancer. It’s caused by damage to one or more of the nerves that start in the spine and run down through the legs. People feel sciatica as pain, numbness, weakness, pins and needles or tingling in the lower back, buttocks, legs or feet.

What does prostate cancer make you feel like?

Prostate Cancer Signs and Symptoms Most prostate cancers are found early, through screening. Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. More advanced prostate cancers can sometimes cause symptoms, such as:

Problems urinating, including a slow or weak urinary stream or the need to urinate more often, especially at night Blood in the urine or semen Trouble getting an erection (erectile dysfunction or ED) Pain in the hips, back (spine), chest (ribs), or other areas from cancer that has spread to bones Weakness or numbness in the legs or feet, or even loss of bladder or bowel control from cancer pressing on the spinal cord

Most of these problems are more likely to be caused by something other than prostate cancer. For example, trouble urinating is much more often caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a non-cancerous growth of the prostate. Still, it’s important to tell your health care provider if you have any of these symptoms so that the cause can be found and treated, if needed.

Is prostate cancer pain painful?

Managing symptoms

Mottet N, Van den Bergh RCN, Briers E, Cornford P, De Santis M, Fanti S, et al. EAU-EANM-ESTRO-ESUR-SIOG Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. European Association of Urology; 2019. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and management. NICE guideline 131.2019. Drudge-Coates L, Oh WK, Tombal B, Delacruz A, Tomlinson B, Ripley AV, et al. Recognizing Symptom Burden in Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Global Patient and Caregiver Survey. Clin Genitourin Cancer.2018 Apr;16(2):e411–9. Cancer Research UK. Prostate cancer 5 year survival by stage.2014. James ND, Spears MR, Clarke NW, Dearnaley DP, De Bono JS, Gale J, et al. Survival with Newly Diagnosed Metastatic Prostate Cancer in the “Docetaxel Era”: Data from 917 Patients in the Control Arm of the STAMPEDE Trial (MRC PR08, CRUK/06/019). Eur Urol.2015 Jun;67(6):1028–38. Koornstra RHT, Peters M, Donofrio S, van den Borne B, de Jong FA. Management of fatigue in patients with cancer – A practical overview. Cancer Treat Rev.2014 Jul;40(6):791–9. Pachman DR, Price KA, Carey EC. Nonpharmacologic approach to fatigue in patients with cancer. Cancer J.2014;20(5):313–318. Bower JE, Bak K, Berger A, Breitbart W, Escalante CP, Ganz PA, et al. Screening, Assessment, and Management of Fatigue in Adult Survivors of Cancer: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Adaptation. J Clin Oncol.2014 Jun 10;32(17):1840–50. Langston B, Armes J, Levy A, Tidey E, Ream E. The prevalence and severity of fatigue in men with prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature. Support Care Cancer.2013 Jun;21(6):1761–71. Horneber M, Fischer I, Dimeo F, Ruffer JU, Weis J. Cancer-Related Fatigue. Dtsch Arztebl Int.2012 Mar;109(9):161–71. Hofman M, Ryan JL, Figueroa-Moseley CD, Jean-Pierre P, Morrow GR. Cancer-Related Fatigue: The Scale of the Problem. The Oncologist.2007 May 1;12(suppl_1):4–10. Morrow GR. Cancer-Related Fatigue: Causes, Consequences, and Management. The Oncologist.2007 May 1;12(suppl_1):1–3. Storey DJ, McLaren DB, Atkinson MA, Butcher I, Frew LC, Smyth JF, et al. Clinically relevant fatigue in men with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer on long-term androgen deprivation therapy. Ann Oncol.2012;23(6):1542–9. Storey DJ, McLaren DB, Atkinson MA, Butcher I, Liggatt S, O’Dea R, et al. Clinically relevant fatigue in recurrence-free prostate cancer survivors. Ann Oncol.2012 Jan 1;23(1):65–72. Merriman JD, Dodd M, Lee K, Paul SM, Cooper BA, Aouizerat BE, et al. Differences in Self-reported Attentional Fatigue Between Patients With Breast and Prostate Cancer at the Initiation of Radiation Therapy: Cancer Nurs.2011 Sep;34(5):345–53. Larkin D, Lopez V, Aromataris E. Managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions. Int J Nurs Pract.2014 Oct;20(5):549–60. Bower JE. Cancer-related fatigue—mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments. Nat Rev Clin Oncol.2014 Aug 12;11(10):597–609. Ryan J, Carroll J, Ryan E, Mustian K, Fiscella K, Morrow G. Mechanisms of Cancer-Related Fatigue. The Oncologist.2007 May;12:22–34. Wang XS. Pathophysiology of Cancer-Related Fatigue. Clin J Oncol Nurs.2008 Jan 1;12(0):11–20. Kyrdalen AE, Dahl AA, Hernes E, Cvancarova M, Foss\aa SD. Fatigue in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy or definitive radiotherapy. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.2010;13(2):144–150. Minton O, Jo F, Jane M. The role of behavioural modification and exercise in the management of cancer-related fatigue to reduce its impact during and after cancer treatment. Acta Oncol.2015 May;54(5):581–6. Garrett K, Dhruva A, Koetters T, West C, Paul SM, Dunn LB, et al. Differences in Sleep Disturbance and Fatigue Between Patients with Breast and Prostate Cancer at the Initiation of Radiation Therapy. J Pain Symptom Manage.2011 Aug;42(2):239–50. Gardner JR, Livingston PM, Fraser SF. Effects of Exercise on Treatment-Related Adverse Effects for Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Androgen-Deprivation Therapy: A Systematic Review. J Clin Oncol.2014 Feb 1;32(4):335–46. Keogh JWL, MacLeod RD. Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Functional Performance, Quality of Life, and Fatigue Benefits of Exercise for Prostate Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review. J Pain Symptom Manage.2012 Jan;43(1):96–110. Bourke L, Smith D, Steed L, Hooper R, Carter A, Catto J, et al. Exercise for Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol.2016 Apr;69(4):693–703. Cramp F, Byron-Daniel J. Exercise for the management of cancer-related fatigue in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev,2012 Nov 14; Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD006145.pub3 Teleni L, Chan RJ, Chan A, Isenring EA, Vela I, Inder WJ, et al. Exercise improves quality of life in androgen deprivation therapy-treated prostate cancer: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Endocr Relat Cancer.2016 Jan 2;23(2):101–12. Menichetti J, Villa S, Magnani T, Avuzzi B, Bosetti D, Marenghi C, et al. Lifestyle interventions to improve the quality of life of men with prostate cancer: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol.2016 Dec;108:13–22. Nguyen PL, Alibhai SMH, Basaria S, D’Amico AV, Kantoff PW, Keating NL, et al. Adverse Effects of Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Strategies to Mitigate Them. Eur Urol.2015 May;67(5):825–36. Thompson JC, Wood J, Feuer D. Prostate cancer: palliative care and pain relief. Br Med Bull.2007;83:341–54. Kane C, Hoskin P, Bennett M. Cancer induced bone pain (clinical review). BMJ.2015;350(h315). National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Neuropathic pain in adults: pharmacological management in non-specialist settings. NICE Clinical Guideline 173. (updated April 2018); 2013. Parsons BA, Evans S, Wright MP. Prostate cancer and urinary incontinence. Maturitas.2009;63(4):323–8. Yoon PD, Chalasani V, Woo HH. Systematic review and meta-analysis on management of acute urinary retention. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.2015 Dec;18(4):297–302. Gravas S, Cornu JN, Gacci M, Gratzke C, Herrmann TRW, Mamoulakis C, et al. EAU Guidelines on Management of Non-Neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS), incl. Benign Prostatic Obstruction (BPO). European Association of Urology; 2019. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men: assessment and management. NICE Clinical Guideline 97, (modified June 2015); 2010. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg97 Alsadius D, Olsson C, Pettersson N, Tucker SL, Wilderäng U, Steineck G. Patient-reported gastrointestinal symptoms among long-term survivors after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol.2014 Aug;112(2):237–43. Schaake W, Wiegman EM, de Groot M, van der Laan HP, van der Schans CP, van den Bergh ACM, et al. The impact of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity on health related quality of life among irradiated prostate cancer patients. Radiother Oncol J Eur Soc Ther Radiol Oncol.2014 Feb;110(2):284–90. Shadad AK, Sullivan FJ, Martin JD, Egan LJ. Gastrointestinal radiation injury: Symptoms, risk factors and mechanisms. World J Gastroenterol WJG.2013 Jan 14;19(2):185–98. Michalski JM, Moughan J, Purdy J, Bosch W, Bruner DW, Bahary J-P, et al. Effect of Standard vs Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Patients With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: The NRG Oncology RTOG 0126 Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Oncol.2018 Jun 1;4(6):e180039–e180039. Clarke NW. Management of the Spectrum of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol.2006 Sep;50(3):428–39. Andreyev HJN. GI Consequences of Cancer Treatment: A Clinical Perspective. Radiat Res.2016 Mar 28;185(4):341–8. Aluwini S, Pos F, Schimmel E, Krol S, van der Toorn PP, de Jager H, et al. Hypofractionated versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for patients with prostate cancer (HYPRO): late toxicity results from a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol.2016;17(4):464–74. Berkey FJ. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy. Am Fam Physician.2010 Aug 15;82(4):381–8, 394. Bubendorf L, Schöpfer A, Wagner U, Sauter G, Moch H, Willi N, et al. Metastatic patterns of prostate cancer: An autopsy study of 1,589 patients. Hum Pathol.2000 May;31(5):578–83. Pettersson A, Johansson B, Persson C, Berglund A, Turesson I. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Radiother Oncol.2012 Jun;103(3):333–40. Henson CC, Burden S, Davidson SE, Lal S. Nutritional interventions for reducing gastrointestinal toxicity in adults undergoing radical pelvic radiotherapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev,2013 ;(11). Available from: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD009896.pub2 Wedlake LJ, Shaw C, Whelan K, Andreyev HJN. Systematic review: the efficacy of nutritional interventions to counteract acute gastrointestinal toxicity during therapeutic pelvic radiotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.2013 Jun;37(11):1046–56. Eastham JA. Bone health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol.2007 Jan;177(1):17–24. Serpa Neto A, Tobias-Machado M, Esteves MAP, Senra MD, Wroclawski ML, Fonseca FLA, et al. Bisphosphonate therapy in patients under androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.2012;15(1):36–44. Patrick DL, Cleeland CS, von Moos R, Fallowfield L, Wei R, Öhrling K, et al. Pain outcomes in patients with bone metastases from advanced cancer: assessment and management with bone-targeting agents. Support Care Cancer,2014 Dec 23 ; Available from: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00520-014-2525-4 Macherey S, Monsef I, Jahn F, Jordan K, Yuen KK, Heidenreich A, et al. Bisphosphonates for advanced prostate cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev,2017 Dec 26 ; Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD006250.pub2/abstract Attar S, Steffner RJ, Avedian R, Hussain WM. Surgical intervention of nonvertebral osseous metastasis. Cancer Control.2012;19(2):113–121. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Percutaneous cementoplasty for palliative treatment of bony malignancies. IPG179.2006; Bancroft J, Janssen E, Strong D, Carnes L, Vukadinovic Z, Long JS. The Relation Between Mood and Sexuality in Heterosexual Men. Arch Sex Behav.2003 Jun 1;32(3):217–30. Schover LR, Canada AL, Yuan Y, Sui D, Neese L, Jenkins R, et al. A randomized trial of internet-based versus traditional sexual counseling for couples after localized prostate cancer treatment. Cancer.2012 Jan 15;118(2):500–9. Magnan S, Zarychanski R, Pilote L, Bernier L, Shemilt M, Vigneault E, et al. Intermittent vs Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Oncol.2015 Sep 17;1–10. Botrel TEA, Clark O, dos Reis RB, Pompeo ACL, Ferreira U, Sadi MV, et al. Intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation for locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Urol.2014;14:9. Todd M. Understanding lymphoedema in advanced disease in a palliative care setting. Int J Palliat Nurs.2009;15(10):474. Wanchai A, Beck M, Stewart BR, Armer JM. Management of Lymphedema for Cancer Patients With Complex Needs. Semin Oncol Nurs.2013 Feb;29(1):61–5. Shaitelman SF, Cromwell KD, Rasmussen JC, Stout NL, Armer JM, Lasinski BB, et al. Recent progress in the treatment and prevention of cancer-related lymphedema. CA Cancer J Clin.2015 Jan;65(1):55–81. Sharifi N, Gulley JL, Dahut WL. An Update on Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer.2010 Dec;17(4):R305–15. Hicks BM, Klil-Drori AJ, Yin H, Campeau L, Azoulay L. Androgen Deprivation Therapy and the Risk of Anemia in Men with Prostate Cancer: Epidemiology.2017 Sep;28(5):712–8. Curtis KK, Adam TJ, Chen S-C, Pruthi RK, Gornet MK. Anaemia following initiation of androgen deprivation therapy for metastatic prostate cancer: A retrospective chart review. Aging Male.2008 Jan;11(4):157–61. Nalesnik JG, Mysliwiec AG, Canby-Hagino E. Anemia in men with advanced prostate cancer: incidence, etiology, and treatment. Rev Urol.2004;6(1):1. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Metastatic spinal cord compression: Diagnosis and management of adults at risk of and with metastatic spinal cord compression. NICE clinical guideline 75,2008. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg75 Loblaw DA, Mitera G, Ford M, Laperriere NJ. A 2011 updated systematic review and clinical practice guideline for the management of malignant extradural spinal cord compression. Int J Radiat Oncol.2012;84(2):312–7. Samphao S, Eremin JM, Eremin O. Oncological emergencies: clinical importance and principles of management. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl).2010;19(6):707–13. Al-Qurainy R, Collis E. Metastatic spinal cord compression: diagnosis and management. BMJ.2016 May 19;353:i2539. Mundy GR, Roodman GD, Smith MR. New Opportunities for the Management of Cancer-Related Bone Complications.2009 ; Available from: http://www.curatio-cme.com/newsletters/CAHO_New_Opp_May2009.pdf Gastanaga VM, Schwartzberg LS, Jain RK, Pirolli M, Quach D, Quigley JM, et al. Prevalence of hypercalcemia among cancer patients in the United States. Cancer Med.2016 Aug;5(8):2091–100. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Hypercalcaemia: Clinical Knowledge Summary,2014, Available from: http://cks.nice.org.uk/hypercalcaemia Walji N, Chan AK, Peake DR. Common acute oncological emergencies: diagnosis, investigation and management. Postgrad Med J.2008 Aug 1;84(994):418–27. Dorff TB, Crawford ED. Management and challenges of corticosteroid therapy in men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Ann Oncol.2013 Jan 1;24(1):31–8. NHS England. Clinical Commissioning Policy Statement: Docetaxel in combination with androgen deprivation therapy for the treatment of hormone naive metastatic prostate cancer.2016. James ND, Sydes MR, Clarke NW, Mason MD, Dearnaley DP, Spears MR, et al. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial. The Lancet.2016 Mar;387(10024):1163–77. Vale CL, Burdett S, Rydzewska LH, Albiges L, Clarke NW, Fisher D, et al. Addition of docetaxel or bisphosphonates to standard of care in men with localised or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analyses of aggregate data. Lancet Oncol.2015; Tucci M, Bertaglia V, Vignani F, Buttigliero C, Fiori C, Porpiglia F, et al. Addition of Docetaxel to Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Patients with Hormone-sensitive Metastatic Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Eur Urol.2015 Sep; National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Docetaxel for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. NICE technology appraisal guidance 101.2006. Bahl A, Oudard S, Tombal B, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Kocak I, et al. Impact of cabazitaxel on 2-year survival and palliation of tumour-related pain in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated in the TROPIC trial. Ann Oncol.2013 May 30;24(9):2402–8. Collins R, Trowman R, Norman G, Light K, Birtle A, Fenwick E, et al. A systematic review of the effectiveness of docetaxel and mitoxantrone for the treatment of metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Br J Cancer.2006 Aug 1;95(4):457–62. Serpa Neto A, Tobias-Machado M, Kaliks R, Wroclawski ML, Pompeo ACL, Del Giglio A. Ten Years of Docetaxel-Based Therapies in Prostate Adenocarcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 2244 Patients in 12 Randomized Clinical Trials. Clin Genitourin Cancer.2011 Dec;9(2):115–23. Singer EA, Srinivasan R. Intravenous therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer: Toxicities and adverse events. Urol Oncol Semin Orig Investig.2012 Jul;30(4):S15–9. de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels J-P, Kocak I, et al. Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet.2010 Oct 2;376(9747):1147–54. Parker CC, James ND, Brawley CD, Clarke NW, Hoyle AP, Ali A, et al. Radiotherapy to the primary tumour for newly diagnosed, metastatic prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): a randomised controlled phase 3 trial. The Lancet.2018 Oct; National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Cabazitaxel for hormone-relapsed metastatic prostate cancer treated with docetaxel. Technology appraisal guidance 391.2016. Scottish Medicines Consortium. Cabazitaxel, 60mg concentrate and solvent for solution for infusion (Jevtana®). SMC No.735/11.2016. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Radium-223 dichloride for treating hormone-relapsed prostate cancer with bone metastases. Technology appraisal guidance 376.2016. Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle SI, O’Sullivan JM, Fosså SD, et al. Alpha Emitter Radium-223 and Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med.2013;369(3):213–23. Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D, Helle SI, O’Sullivan JM, Fosså SD, et al. Alpha Emitter Radium-223 and Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. N Engl J Med.2013;369(3):213–23. British Pain Society. Cancer pain management: a perspective from the British Pain Society, supported by the Association for Palliative Medicine and the Royal College of General Practitioners. London: British Pain Soc.; 2010. Li KK, Hadi S, Kirou-Mauro A, Chow E. When Should we Define the Response Rates in the Treatment of Bone Metastases by Palliative Radiotherapy? Clin Oncol.2008 Feb;20(1):83–9. Spencer K, Parrish R, Barton R, Henry A. Palliative radiotherapy. BMJ.2018 Mar 23;k821. Hospice UK. What is hospice care? 2011. National Institute for Health Research. Better Endings: Right care, right place, right time.,2015. Available from: http://www.dc.nihr.ac.uk/_data/assets/file/0005/157037/Better-endings-FINAL-DH-single-page.pdf NHS National End of Life Care Programme. Deaths from urological cancers in England 2001-2010,2012 Nov. Available from: http://www.endoflifecare-intelligence.org.uk/resources/publications/deaths_from_urological_cancers Husson O, Mols F, Poll-Franse LV van de. The relation between information provision and health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression among cancer survivors: a systematic review. Ann Oncol.2010 Sep 24;mdq413. Saylor PJ, Smith MR. Metabolic Complications of Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer. J Urol.2013 Jan;189(1):S34–44. Allott EH, Masko EM, Freedland SJ. Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Weighing the Evidence. Eur Urol.2013 May;63(5):800–9. Keto CJ, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Presti JC, Kane CJ, Amling CL, et al. Obesity is associated with castration-resistant disease and metastasis in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy after radical prostatectomy: results from the SEARCH database. BJU Int.2011;110(4):492–8. De Laet C, Kanis JA, Odén A, Johanson H, Johnell O, Delmas P, et al. Body mass index as a predictor of fracture risk: A meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int.2005 Nov;16(11):1330–8. Oefelein MG, Ricchuiti V, Conrad W, Seftel A, Bodner D, Goldman H, et al. Skeletal fracture associated with androgen suppression induced osteoporosis: the clinical incidence and risk factors for patients with prostate cancer. J Urol.2001;166(5):1724–1728. Ryan CW, Huo D, Stallings JW, Davis RL, Beer TM, McWhorter LT. Lifestyle Factors and Duration of Androgen Deprivation Affect Bone Mineral Density of Patients with Prostate Cancer During First Year of Therapy. Urology.2007 Jul;70(1):122–6. Abrahamsen B, Brask-Lindemann D, Rubin KH, Schwarz P. A review of lifestyle, smoking and other modifiable risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. BoneKEy Rep.2014 Sep 3;3:574. Hechtman LM. Clinical Naturopathic Medicine, Harcourt Publishers Group (Australia); 2014,1610 p. Available from: http://www.bookdepository.com/Clinical-Naturopathic-Medicine-Leah-Hechtman/9780729541923 Tillisch K. Complementary and alternative medicine for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Gut.2006 May 1;55(5):593–6. NHS Choices. The risks of drinking too much,2017, Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/alcohol/Pages/Effectsofalcohol.aspx Islami F, Moreira DM, Boffetta P, Freedland SJ. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Tobacco Use and Prostate Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Prospective Cohort Studies. Eur Urol.2014 Dec;66(6):1054–64. Moreira DM, Aronson WJ, Terris MK, Kane CJ, Amling CL, Cooperberg MR, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of biochemical disease recurrence, metastasis, castration-resistant prostate cancer, and mortality after radical prostatectomy: Results from the SEARCH database. Cancer.2014 Jan 15;120(2):197–204. Davies NJ, Batehup L, Thomas R. The role of diet and physical activity in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivorship: a review of the literature. Br J Cancer.2011 Nov 8;105:S52–73. Ahmadi H, Daneshmand S. Androgen deprivation therapy: evidence-based management of side effects. BJU Int.2013 Apr;111(4):543–8. Hamilton K, Chambers SK, Legg M, Oliffe JL, Cormie P. Sexuality and exercise in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Support Care Cancer.2015 Jan;23(1):133–42. Cormie P, Newton RU, Taaffe DR, Spry N, Joseph D, Hamid MA, et al. Exercise maintains sexual activity in men undergoing androgen suppression for prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.2013;16(2):170–175. Newby TA, Graff JN, Ganzini LK, McDonagh MS. Interventions that may reduce depressive symptoms among prostate cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychooncology.2015 Dec;24(12):1686–93. Chipperfield K, Brooker J, Fletcher J, Burney S. The impact of physical activity on psychosocial outcomes in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: A systematic review. Health Psychol.2014;33(11):1288–97. Keilani M, Hasenoehrl T, Baumann L, Ristl R, Schwarz M, Marhold M, et al. Effects of resistance exercise in prostate cancer patients: a meta-analysis. Support Care Cancer.2017 Jun 10; Macmillan Cancer Support. Your rights at work,2013, Available from: http://www.macmillan.org.uk/Documents/Cancerinfo/Livingwithandaftercancer/WorkandcancerPDFs/Yourrightsatwork_2013_2.pdf nidirect. Employment rights and the Disability Discrimination Act. Available from: https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/articles/employment-rights-and-disability-discrimination-act Compassion in Dying. IN04 Your rights in Northern Ireland,, Available from: http://www.compassionindying.org.uk/sites/default/files/IN04%20Your%20rights%20in%20Northern%20Ireland.pdf Abel J, Pring A, Rich A, Malik T, Verne J. The impact of advance care planning of place of death, a hospice retrospective cohort study. BMJ Support Palliat Care.2013;3(2):168–173. Watson M, Lucas C, Hoy A, Back I, Armstrong P. Palliative care adult network guidelines,4th Edition.2016. Available from: http://book.pallcare.info/index.php?user_style=1 Compassion in Dying. Advance Decisions (Living Wills): an introduction.2015. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Care of dying adults in the last days of life. NICE Quality Standard 144,2017. Available from: care-of-dying-adults-in-the-last-days-of-life-pdf-75545479508677.pdf Marie Curie Cancer Care. Difficult conversations with dying people and their families,2014. Available from: http://www2.mariecurie.org.uk/ImageVaultFiles/id_1956/cf_100/Difficult-Conversations_report.PDF National End of Life Care Intelligence Network. What we know now 2014, Public Health England; 2015. Available from: www.endoflifecare-intelligence.org.uk/view?rid=872 NHS Choices. End of life care: Why plan ahead?,2017, Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/end-of-life-care/Pages/why-plan-ahead.aspx Carter N, Bryant-Lukosius D, DiCenso A, Blythe J, Neville AJ. The supportive care needs of men with advanced prostate cancer. In: Oncology nursing forum, Onc Nurs Society; 2011,p.189–198. Available from: http://ons.metapress.com/index/G82215H56920T680.pdf NHS Choices. End of life care: What it involves and when it starts, National Health Service.2015, Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/Planners/end-of-life-care/Pages/what-it-involves-and-when-it-starts.aspx

You might be interested:  How To Treat Mange In Dogs At Home?

: Managing symptoms

Where is the first place that prostate cancer spreads?

Drugs to treat cancer spread to bone – If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it almost always goes to the bones first. These areas of cancer spread can cause pain and weak bones that might break. Medicines that can help strengthen the bones and lower the chance of fracture are bisphosphonates and denosumab.

Does early stage prostate cancer cause pain?

Early prostate cancer symptoms – Because of the proximity of the prostate gland to the bladder and urethra, prostate cancer may be accompanied by a variety of urinary symptoms, especially in the early stages of prostate cancer, Depending on its size and location, a tumor may press on and constrict the urethra, inhibiting the flow of urine. Some early prostate cancer signs include:

Burning or pain during urination Difficulty urinating, or trouble starting and stopping while urinating More frequent urges to urinate at night Loss of bladder control Decreased flow or velocity of urine stream Blood in urine (hematuria) Blood in semen Erectile dysfunction Painful ejaculation

What is the biggest symptom of prostate cancer?

Overview – Learn more about prostate cancer from Mayo Clinic urologist Mitchell Humphreys, M.D. Hi. I’m Dr. Humphreys, a urologist at Mayo Clinic. In this video, we’ll cover the basics of prostate cancer: What is it? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

Whether you’re looking for answers about your own health or that of someone you love, we’re here to provide you with the best information available. Prostate cancer, unfortunately, is common. It affects one in seven men, making it the second most common cancer among men worldwide. The good news is, is that prostate cancer can be curable, especially when identified and treated early.

That is why I and most urologists and medical professionals you talk to encourage men over a certain age to get regular prostate screenings. First, let’s talk about what the prostate is and how it functions. The prostate is a small gland that is involved in reproduction and makes some of the essential components in semen.

  • While it is small, it has an important role in reproductive health and can cause voiding or urinary symptoms as men age, as well becoming a source of cancer.
  • Like other kinds of cancer, prostate cancer starts when cells mutate.
  • These small changes in DNA cause the cells to grow faster and live longer than they normally would.
You might be interested:  How To Treat Rabies At Home?

As these abnormal cells accumulate, they monopolize resources from normal cells, which can damage surrounding tissue. These cancerous cells can then spread to other parts of the body. Who gets it? By definition, prostate cancer only affects bodies with male reproductive organs.

  • But in addition, there are some other risk factors that we can monitor.
  • Age is a big one, as prostate cancer is more prevalent in older men, which is why testing is encouraged as men age.
  • For reasons that are unclear, Black men also have a greater risk compared to other races or ethnicities.
  • Being at a higher weight as another possible risk factor.

Genetics can also play a role in prostate cancer. A family history of prostate cancer or certain kinds of breast cancer increases the likelihood of being diagnosed with prostate cancer. Well, it’s not a guarantee, there are plenty of steps you can take to reduce your risk.

A healthy diet and exercise helps your body’s overall well-being and can lower your chances of getting prostate cancer. What are the symptoms? A big reason to get regular testing is that prostate cancer usually has no presenting symptoms. And when they do show up, it generally indicates a worse stage of cancer.

When symptoms do occur, they can include: trouble urinating or decreased force of stream, blood in the urine or semen, bone pain, unexpected weight loss, and unexplained fevers. If you consistently notice any of these symptoms, you should see your doctor right away.

How is it diagnosed? There are a variety of ways to detect prostate cancer in both physical exam and from the blood. For starters, there’s the DRE, the digital rectal exam. Just like the name suggests, the doctor inserts their finger and your rectum to feel the prostate to detect any abnormalities. You can also get a blood test to look for prostate-specific antigen, or PSA.

It is recommended that you have this as well as the physical exam. And if there are any abnormalities, there are additional tests that can be used. If prostate cancer is detected, the next step is figuring out how fast it grows. Fortunately, prostate cancer often doesn’t grow very fast.

  • Prostate cancer is graded by a Gleason score, which measures how abnormal or different from normal cells are.
  • There are also other tests to see if the cancer has spread: bone scan, CT scan, MRI, and even specific PET scans.
  • Your doctor will be able to determine which, if any, is appropriate for you.
  • How is it treated? Treatments are most effective when the cancer is caught early.

In fact, immediate treatment isn’t always necessary. Keeping an eye on the cancer until it grows bigger is sometimes enough. When cancer is localized only to the prostate, surgery to remove the prostate, or a radical prostatectomy, could be your best option.

Radiation is another possibility. With external beam radiation, high-energy beams that deliver photons, target and kill the abnormal cells of the prostate from outside your body. Another treatment is chemotherapy, which uses powerful chemicals, destroy the cancer cells. Cryotherapy, which freezes the cancer cells, or heat, can be used to kill the cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound.

Consider that prostate cancer uses male hormone or testosterone as an important factor for growth. In some prostate cancers, it may be beneficial to block that hormone with androgen deprivation therapy, or ADT, which can slow the cancer or even put it in remission.

It is generally not curative and usually the cancer will find a way to grow even with the lack of testosterone. Sometimes ADT is used in combination to enhance the treatment success of other therapies, such as with radiation. All of these treatments have side effects of various degrees and have different success rates of treating prostate cancer.

It’s important that you have a candid discussion with your family and your care team and weigh all that information to make the best choice for you. Support groups for cancer survivors can be helpful in dealing with the stress of the diagnosis and treatments.

  1. What now? As we’ve seen here, research and scientific advancement has provided us with a host of options for this extremely treatable form of cancer.
  2. And with early detection, your chances are even better.
  3. While it may not be a thing people want to think about, it’s an important part of your health and an expert medical care team can guide you to the solutions that are most tailored for you, your wishes and your body.

If you’d like to learn even more about prostate cancer, watch our other related videos or visit mayoclinic.org. We wish you well. Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Many prostate cancers grow slowly and are confined to the prostate gland, where they may not cause serious harm. However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.

Prostate cancer that’s detected early — when it’s still confined to the prostate gland — has the best chance for successful treatment.

How quickly does prostate cancer spread?

This is because, unlike many other cancers, prostate cancer usually progresses very slowly. It can take up to 15 years for the cancer to spread from the prostate to other parts of the body (metastasis), typically the bones. In many cases, prostate cancer won’t affect a man’s natural life span.

What are the signs that prostate cancer has spread?

Prostate cancer can spread to the lymph nodes in the groin area, or to other parts of the body. The most common symptoms are swelling and pain around the area where the cancer has spread. Cancer cells can stop lymph fluid from draining away. This might lead to swelling in the legs due to fluid build up in that area.

How can you tell the difference between prostate and prostate cancer?

Free PSA test – This test is used for men who have higher PSA levels. The standard PSA test measures total PSA, which includes both PSA that is attached, or bound, to other proteins and PSA that is free, or not bound. The free PSA test measures free PSA only.

If both total PSA and free PSA are higher than normal (high percentage of free PSA), this suggests BPH rather than cancer. If total PSA is high but free PSA is not (low percentage of free PSA), cancer is more likely. More testing, such as a biopsy, should be done.

You and your doctor should talk about your personal risk and free PSA results. Then you can decide together whether to have follow-up biopsies and, if so, how often. There is no magic PSA level below which a man can be assured of having no risk of prostate cancer nor above which a biopsy should automatically be performed.

Can prostate cancer feel like a pulled groin?

Groin Pain And Prostate Cancer Groin Pain And Prostate Cancer The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system, about the size of the walnut. It wraps around the tube that carries urine out of the bladder and grows are you age. If the prostate grows too big, it can cause health problems – and sometimes cancer.

  • Prostate cancer is the second most common diagnosed cancer in men behind skin cancer.
  • According to the American Cancer Society, 1 in 6 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and 1 in 35 men will die from the disease.
  • As men age, their risk of prostate cancer increases.
  • Groin pain or urination problems should not be taken lightly, considering the risks of prostate cancer.

However, there are several prostate problems that are not associated with prostate cancer that can also cause groin pain:

– An enlarged prostate, this is very common in older men. BPH makes it difficult to urinate and increases the frequency in which men feel the need to urinate.Acute bacterial prostatitis – Beginning with a bacterial infection, this can cause fever, chills, or pain. It can cause painful urination or blood in the urine.Chronic bacterial prostatitis – A recurring infection, this is rare and requires antibiotics.Chronic prostatitis – Or Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome, this is a common prostate issue that causes pain the lower back, groin area, or tip of the penis. It causes painful ejaculation or the urge to urinate frequently.

Symptoms of prostate cancer can be similar to the conditions above. They include:

Trouble passing urineFrequent urge to urinateInterrupted urine streamBlood in urine or semenPainful ejaculationPain in the back, hips, or pelvis can be a sign of advanced prostate cancer

Some men with testicular cancer report feeling a heavy, aching feeling in the low stomach, scrotum, or testicles. They described it as a feeling of downward pulling or an ache. If prostate cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, you may experience discomfort in the pelvis or swelling in the legs. Any pain in the general groin, low stomach, or upper thigh region should be taken seriously.

How does prostate cancer affect you physically?

Surgery Side Effects – Because the prostate is close to several vital structures, prostate cancer surgery can disrupt normal urinary, bowel, and sexual functioning. Urinary Incontinence During a prostatectomy, the bladder is pulled downward and connected to the urethra at the point where the prostate once sat. If the sphincter,

You might be interested:  Why Does My Heart Hurt Randomly?

What is the life expectancy of a man with prostate cancer?

Survival for all stages of prostate cancer – Generally for men with prostate cancer in England:

more than 95 out of 100 (more than 95%) will survive their cancer for 1 year or more more than 85 out of 100 (more than 85%) will survive their cancer for 5 years or more almost 80 out of 100 (almost 80%) will survive their cancer for 10 years or more

Survival of prostate cancer is also reported in Scotland and Northern Ireland. But it is difficult to compare survival between these countries because of differences in the way the information is collected. Cancer survival by stage at diagnosis for England, 2019 Office for National Statistics These statistics are for net survival.

What is the main cause of prostate cancer?

Researchers do not know exactly what causes prostate cancer. But they have found some risk factors and are trying to learn just how these factors might cause prostate cells to become cancer cells. On a basic level, prostate cancer is caused by changes in the DNA of a normal prostate cell.

Certain genes that help cells grow, divide, and stay alive are called oncogenes, Genes that normally keep cell growth under control, repair mistakes in DNA, or cause cells to die at the right time are called tumor suppressor genes,

Cancer can be caused by DNA mutations (or other types of changes) that keep oncogenes turned on, or that turn off tumor suppressor genes. These types of gene changes can lead to cells growing out of control. DNA changes can either be inherited from a parent or can be acquired during a person’s lifetime.

How often is prostate cancer fatal?

Deaths from prostate cancer – Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in American men, behind only lung cancer. About 1 man in 41 will die of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer can be a serious disease, but most men diagnosed with prostate cancer do not die from it.

Written by References

American Cancer Society. Facts & Figures 2022, American Cancer Society. Atlanta, Ga.2022. National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html on March 15, 2019. Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds).

  1. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015, National Cancer Institute.
  2. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2015/, based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018.
  3. References American Cancer Society.
  4. Facts & Figures 2022,
  5. American Cancer Society.
  6. Atlanta, Ga.2022.

National Cancer Institute. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Prostate Cancer. Accessed at https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/prost.html on March 15, 2019. Noone AM, Howlader N, Krapcho M, Miller D, Brest A, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds).

SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2015, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2015/, based on November 2017 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2018. Last Revised: January 12, 2022 American Cancer Society medical information is copyrighted material.

For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy,

Where is most prostate cancer located?

Most prostate cancer develops in the zone of the prostate near the rectum (peripheral zone), which is why a digital rectal exam is a useful screening test. This is why prostate cancer typically does not interfere with urination as much as BPH does.

What is the biggest symptom of prostate cancer?

Overview – Learn more about prostate cancer from Mayo Clinic urologist Mitchell Humphreys, M.D. Hi. I’m Dr. Humphreys, a urologist at Mayo Clinic. In this video, we’ll cover the basics of prostate cancer: What is it? Who gets it? The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.

Whether you’re looking for answers about your own health or that of someone you love, we’re here to provide you with the best information available. Prostate cancer, unfortunately, is common. It affects one in seven men, making it the second most common cancer among men worldwide. The good news is, is that prostate cancer can be curable, especially when identified and treated early.

That is why I and most urologists and medical professionals you talk to encourage men over a certain age to get regular prostate screenings. First, let’s talk about what the prostate is and how it functions. The prostate is a small gland that is involved in reproduction and makes some of the essential components in semen.

  • While it is small, it has an important role in reproductive health and can cause voiding or urinary symptoms as men age, as well becoming a source of cancer.
  • Like other kinds of cancer, prostate cancer starts when cells mutate.
  • These small changes in DNA cause the cells to grow faster and live longer than they normally would.

As these abnormal cells accumulate, they monopolize resources from normal cells, which can damage surrounding tissue. These cancerous cells can then spread to other parts of the body. Who gets it? By definition, prostate cancer only affects bodies with male reproductive organs.

  • But in addition, there are some other risk factors that we can monitor.
  • Age is a big one, as prostate cancer is more prevalent in older men, which is why testing is encouraged as men age.
  • For reasons that are unclear, Black men also have a greater risk compared to other races or ethnicities.
  • Being at a higher weight as another possible risk factor.

Genetics can also play a role in prostate cancer. A family history of prostate cancer or certain kinds of breast cancer increases the likelihood of being diagnosed with prostate cancer. Well, it’s not a guarantee, there are plenty of steps you can take to reduce your risk.

  • A healthy diet and exercise helps your body’s overall well-being and can lower your chances of getting prostate cancer.
  • What are the symptoms? A big reason to get regular testing is that prostate cancer usually has no presenting symptoms.
  • And when they do show up, it generally indicates a worse stage of cancer.

When symptoms do occur, they can include: trouble urinating or decreased force of stream, blood in the urine or semen, bone pain, unexpected weight loss, and unexplained fevers. If you consistently notice any of these symptoms, you should see your doctor right away.

  • How is it diagnosed? There are a variety of ways to detect prostate cancer in both physical exam and from the blood.
  • For starters, there’s the DRE, the digital rectal exam.
  • Just like the name suggests, the doctor inserts their finger and your rectum to feel the prostate to detect any abnormalities.
  • You can also get a blood test to look for prostate-specific antigen, or PSA.

It is recommended that you have this as well as the physical exam. And if there are any abnormalities, there are additional tests that can be used. If prostate cancer is detected, the next step is figuring out how fast it grows. Fortunately, prostate cancer often doesn’t grow very fast.

Prostate cancer is graded by a Gleason score, which measures how abnormal or different from normal cells are. There are also other tests to see if the cancer has spread: bone scan, CT scan, MRI, and even specific PET scans. Your doctor will be able to determine which, if any, is appropriate for you. How is it treated? Treatments are most effective when the cancer is caught early.

In fact, immediate treatment isn’t always necessary. Keeping an eye on the cancer until it grows bigger is sometimes enough. When cancer is localized only to the prostate, surgery to remove the prostate, or a radical prostatectomy, could be your best option.

  • Radiation is another possibility.
  • With external beam radiation, high-energy beams that deliver photons, target and kill the abnormal cells of the prostate from outside your body.
  • Another treatment is chemotherapy, which uses powerful chemicals, destroy the cancer cells.
  • Cryotherapy, which freezes the cancer cells, or heat, can be used to kill the cancer cells with high-intensity focused ultrasound.

Consider that prostate cancer uses male hormone or testosterone as an important factor for growth. In some prostate cancers, it may be beneficial to block that hormone with androgen deprivation therapy, or ADT, which can slow the cancer or even put it in remission.

It is generally not curative and usually the cancer will find a way to grow even with the lack of testosterone. Sometimes ADT is used in combination to enhance the treatment success of other therapies, such as with radiation. All of these treatments have side effects of various degrees and have different success rates of treating prostate cancer.

It’s important that you have a candid discussion with your family and your care team and weigh all that information to make the best choice for you. Support groups for cancer survivors can be helpful in dealing with the stress of the diagnosis and treatments.

  1. What now? As we’ve seen here, research and scientific advancement has provided us with a host of options for this extremely treatable form of cancer.
  2. And with early detection, your chances are even better.
  3. While it may not be a thing people want to think about, it’s an important part of your health and an expert medical care team can guide you to the solutions that are most tailored for you, your wishes and your body.

If you’d like to learn even more about prostate cancer, watch our other related videos or visit mayoclinic.org. We wish you well. Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate. The prostate is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. Many prostate cancers grow slowly and are confined to the prostate gland, where they may not cause serious harm. However, while some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or even no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.

Prostate cancer that’s detected early — when it’s still confined to the prostate gland — has the best chance for successful treatment.

Can you physically feel prostate cancer?

Symptoms of prostate cancer can be: Dull pain in the lower pelvic area. Frequent urinating. Trouble urinating, pain, burning, or weak urine flow.

How does one know if they have prostate cancer?

If you have any symptoms that worry you, be sure to see your doctor right away. They may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer. Different people have different symptoms for prostate cancer. Some men do not have symptoms at all. If you have any of the following symptoms, be sure to see your doctor right away—

Difficulty starting urination. Weak or interrupted flow of urine. Urinating often, especially at night. Trouble emptying the bladder completely. Pain or burning during urination. Blood in the urine or semen. Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn’t go away. Painful ejaculation.

Keep in mind that these symptoms may be caused by conditions other than prostate cancer.