– Your heart rate is the speed at which your heart beats. It beats slower when you are resting and faster when you exercise. Because of this, you can use your heart rate to measure the intensity of your exercise. For every age group, there is a “target heart rate.” The target heart rate is the rate your heart beats during good aerobic exercise.
- By monitoring your heart rate and comparing it to your target range, you can determine whether you are exercising too hard or not hard enough.
- When you exercise, you should aim to reach your target heart rate and stay within that range for 20 to 30 minutes.
- You can measure your own heart rate by taking your pulse.
To do so, place your index and middle fingers on the wrist of your other hand, just below your thumb. You should be able to feel a pulse. (You shouldn’t use your thumb to take the measurement because it has a pulse of its own.) Count the heartbeats for 60 seconds.
View complete answer
What is the normal pulse rate for a pregnant woman?
Symptoms that should be immediately reported to a doctor if they occur during pregnancy include the following:
Persistent or unusual headaches Light-headedness Disturbances of eyesight Contractions Leakage of amniotic fluid (described as “the water breaks”) Decreased urine production Any illness or infection Tremor (shaking of the hands, feet, or both) Seizures Rapid heart rate Decreased movement of the fetus
If labor was quick in previous pregnancies, women should notify their doctor as soon as they have any indication that labor is starting. Fatigue is common, especially in the first 12 weeks and again in late pregnancy. The woman may need to get more rest than usual.
- By 12 weeks of pregnancy, the enlarging uterus may cause the woman’s abdomen to protrude slightly.
- The uterus continues to enlarge throughout pregnancy.
- The enlarging uterus extends to the level of the navel by 20 weeks and to the lower edge of the rib cage by 36 weeks.
- The breasts tend to enlarge because hormones (mainly estrogen ) are preparing the breasts for milk production.
The glands that produce milk gradually increase in number and become able to produce milk. The breasts may feel firm and tender. Wearing a bra that fits properly and provides support may help. During the last weeks of pregnancy, the breasts may produce a thin, yellowish or milky discharge (colostrum).
Colostrum is also produced during the first few days after delivery, before breast milk is produced. This fluid, which is rich in minerals and antibodies, is the breastfed baby’s first food. During pregnancy, the woman’s heart must work harder because as the fetus grows, the heart must pump more blood to the uterus.
By the end of pregnancy, the uterus is receiving one fifth of the woman’s prepregnancy blood supply. During pregnancy, the amount of blood pumped by the heart (cardiac output) increases by 30 to 50%. As cardiac output increases, the heart rate at rest speeds up from a normal prepregnancy rate of about 70 beats per minute to as high as 90 beats per minute.
During exercise, cardiac output and heart rate increase more when a woman is pregnant than when she is not. At about 30 weeks of pregnancy, cardiac output decreases slightly. Then during labor, it increases by an additional 30%. After delivery, cardiac output decreases rapidly at first, then more slowly.
It returns to the prepregnancy level about 6 weeks after delivery. Blood pressure usually decreases during the 2nd trimester but may return to a normal prepregnancy level in the 3rd trimester. The volume of blood increases by almost 50% during pregnancy.
The amount of fluid in the blood increases more than the number of red blood cells (which carry oxygen). Thus, even though there are more red blood cells, blood tests indicate mild anemia, which is normal. For reasons not clearly understood, the number of white blood cells (which fight infection) increases slightly during pregnancy and increases markedly during labor and the first few days after delivery.
The enlarging uterus interferes with the return of blood from the legs and the pelvic area to the heart. As a result, swelling Swelling During Late Pregnancy As pregnancy progresses, fluid may accumulate in tissues, usually in the feet, ankles, and legs, causing them to swell and appear puffy.
This condition is called edema. Occasionally, the face. read more (edema) is common, especially in the legs. Varicose veins Varicose Veins Varicose veins are abnormally enlarged superficial veins in the legs. Varicose veins may cause your legs to ache, itch, and feel tired. Doctors can detect varicose veins by examining the skin.
read more commonly develop in the legs and in the area around the vaginal opening (vulva). They sometimes cause discomfort. Clothing that is loose around the waist and legs is more comfortable and does not restrict blood flow. Some measures not only ease the discomfort but may also reduce leg swelling and make varicose veins more likely to disappear after delivery:
Wearing elastic support hose Resting frequently with the legs elevated Lying on the left side
Like the heart, the kidneys work harder throughout pregnancy. They filter the increasing volume of blood. The volume of blood filtered by the kidneys reaches a maximum between 16 and 24 weeks and remains at the maximum until just before the baby is due.
Then, pressure from the enlarging uterus may slightly decrease the blood supply to the kidneys. Activity of the kidneys normally increases when a person lies down and decreases when a person stands. This difference is amplified during pregnancy—one reason a pregnant woman needs to urinate frequently while trying to sleep.
Late in pregnancy, lying on the side, particularly the left side, increases kidney activity more than lying on the back. Lying on the left side relieves the pressure that the enlarged uterus puts on the main vein that carries blood from the legs. As a result, blood flow improves and kidney activity increases.
The uterus presses on the bladder, reducing its size so that it fills with urine more quickly than usual. This pressure also makes a pregnant woman need to urinate more often and more urgently. The high level of progesterone, a hormone produced continuously during pregnancy, signals the body to breath faster and deeper.
As a result, a pregnant woman exhales more carbon dioxide to keep the level of carbon dioxide low. (Carbon dioxide is a waste product given off during respiration.) The woman may breathe faster also because the enlarging uterus limits how much the lungs can expand when she breathes in.
The circumference of the woman’s chest enlarges slightly. Virtually every pregnant woman becomes somewhat more out of breath when she exerts herself, especially toward the end of pregnancy. During exercise, the breathing rate increases more when a woman is pregnant than when she is not. Because more blood is being pumped, the lining of the airways receives more blood and swells somewhat, narrowing the airways.
As a result, the nose occasionally feels stuffy, and the eustachian tubes (which connect the middle ear and back of the nose) may become blocked. These effects can slightly change the tone and quality of the woman’s voice. Nausea and vomiting may be relieved by changing the diet or patterns of eating—for example, by doing the following:
Drinking and eating small portions frequently Eating before getting hungry Eating bland foods (such as bouillon, consommé, rice, and pasta) Eating plain soda crackers and sipping a carbonated drink Keeping crackers by the bed and eating one or two before getting up to relieve morning sickness
Heartburn and belching are common, possibly because food remains in the stomach longer and because the ringlike muscle (sphincter) at the lower end of the esophagus tends to relax, allowing the stomach’s contents to flow backward into the esophagus. Several measures can help relieve heartburn:
Eating smaller meals Not bending or lying flat for several hours after eating Avoiding caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, and aspirin and related drugs (salicylates) Taking liquid antacids, but not antacids that contain sodium bicarbonate because they contain so much salt (sodium)
Heartburn during the night can be relieved by the following:
Not eating for several hours before going to bed Raising the head of the bed or using pillows to raise the head and shoulders
The stomach produces less acid during pregnancy. Consequently, stomach ulcers rarely develop during pregnancy, and those that already exist often start to heal. As pregnancy progresses, pressure from the enlarging uterus on the rectum and the lower part of the intestine may cause constipation.
- Constipation may be worsened because the high level of progesterone during pregnancy slows the automatic waves of muscular contractions in the intestine, which normally move food along.
- Eating a high-fiber diet, drinking plenty of fluids, and exercising regularly can help prevent constipation.
- Hemorrhoids, a common problem, may result from pressure of the enlarging uterus or from constipation.
Stool softeners, an anesthetic gel, or warm soaks can be used if hemorrhoids hurt. Pica, a craving for strange foods or nonfoods (such as starch or clay), may develop. Occasionally, pregnant women, usually those who also have morning sickness, have excess saliva.
- This symptom may be distressing but is harmless.
- Mask of pregnancy (melasma) is a blotchy, brownish pigment that may appear on the skin of the forehead and cheeks.
- The skin surrounding the nipples (areolae) may also darken.
- A dark line (called linea nigra) commonly appears down the middle of the abdomen.
These changes may occur because the placenta produces a hormone that stimulates melanocytes, the cells that make a dark brown skin pigment (melanin). Pink stretch marks sometimes appear on the abdomen. This change probably results from rapid growth of the uterus and an increase in levels of adrenal hormones.
- Small blood vessels may form a red spiderlike pattern on the skin, usually above the waist.
- These formations are called spider angiomas.
- Thin-walled, dilated capillaries may become visible, especially in the lower legs.
- Two intensely itchy rashes occur only during pregnancy: Pregnancy affects virtually all hormones in the body, mostly because of the effects of hormones produced by the placenta.
For example, the placenta produces a hormone that stimulates the woman’s thyroid gland to become more active and produce larger amounts of thyroid hormones. When the thyroid gland becomes more active (as it does in hyperthyroidism Thyroid Disorders During Pregnancy Thyroid disorders may be present before women become pregnant, or they may develop during pregnancy.
- Being pregnant does not change the symptoms of thyroid disorders.
- How the fetus is affected.
- Read more ), the heart may beat faster, causing the woman to become aware of her heartbeat (have palpitations).
- Perspiration may increase, mood swings may occur, and the thyroid gland may enlarge.
- However, the disorder hyperthyroidism, in which the thyroid gland malfunctions and is overactive, develops in fewer than 0.1% of pregnancies.
Levels of estrogen and progesterone increase early during pregnancy because human chorionic gonadotropin, the main hormone the placenta produces, stimulates the ovaries to continuously produce them. After 9 to 10 weeks of pregnancy, the placenta itself produces large amounts of estrogen and progesterone,
Estrogen and progesterone help maintain the pregnancy. The placenta stimulates the adrenal glands to produce more aldosterone and cortisol (which help regulate how much fluid the kidneys excrete). As a result, more fluids are retained. The joints and ligaments (fibrous cords and cartilage that connect bones) in the woman’s pelvis loosen and become more flexible.
This change helps make room for the enlarging uterus and prepare the woman for delivery of the baby. As a result, the woman’s posture changes somewhat. Backache in varying degrees is common because the spine curves more to balance the weight of the enlarging uterus.
View complete answer
How can I check my pregnancy by pulse?
Unfortunately, no doctor in the world can tell if you are pregnant by merely checking your pulse.
View complete answer
Is your pulse higher when pregnant?
How does pregnancy affect the heart? – Pregnancy stresses your heart and circulatory system. During pregnancy, your blood volume increases by 30 to 50 percent to nourish your growing baby, your heart pumps more blood each minute and your heart rate increases.
View complete answer
Is 110 pulse rate normal for pregnant woman?
Clinical assessment – Cardiovascular changes take place from the first trimester onwards, however, heart rate changes occur later and rises progressively towards an average of 91 bpm (range 68–115) at around 34 weeks.2 A persistent tachycardia in early pregnancy is, therefore, less likely to be physiological than later in pregnancy, which emphasises the importance of knowing an accurate gestational age.
palpitations with chest pain, breathlessness or feeling faint any known heart conditions an arrhythmia a family history of sudden or unexplained death in a young member of the family a temperature or symptoms of infection any venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk factors in pregnancy? 6
Further investigations are likely to be required if any abnormalities are identified by those questions. If there are no concerning features of the history, the patient has normal observations for pregnancy, a normal electrocardiography (ECG) and blood tests, then it is likely that the patient can be reassured after senior review without further investigation (Box 1 ).
View complete answer
Is 120 beats per minute normal for pregnancy?
Fetal heart rate in the first and second trimester | Radiology Reference Article A normal fetal heart rate (FHR) usually ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute (bpm) in the in utero period. It is measurable sonographically from around 6 weeks and the normal range varies during gestation, increasing to around 170 bpm at 10 weeks and decreasing from then to around 130 bpm at term.
View complete answer
When do you start to feel pregnancy symptoms?
Some women may begin noticing the first early signs of pregnancy a week or two after conception, while others will start to feel symptoms closer to four or five weeks after conception. Some women may not feel symptoms until their period is noticeably late, or even farther into pregnancy.
View complete answer
How early can you feel pregnant?
Can you feel pregnant before you miss your period? – Yes, you can feel pregnant before you miss your period. Some people say they’ve felt pregnancy symptoms within a week of conception (about one week before a missed period).
View complete answer