How To Increase Hemoglobin In A Week During Pregnancy?

How To Increase Hemoglobin In A Week During Pregnancy
Preventing Anemia –

Eat iron-rich foods such as meat, chicken, fish, eggs, dried beans and fortified grains. The form of iron in meat products, called heme, is more easily absorbed than the iron in vegetables. If you are anemic and you ordinarily eat meat, increasing the amount of meat you consume is the easiest way to increase the iron your body receives. Eat foods high in folic acid, such as dried beans, dark green leafy vegetables, wheat germ and orange juice. Eat foods high in vitamin C, such as citrus fruits and fresh, raw vegetables. Cooking with cast iron pots can add up to 80 percent more iron to your food. Take your prenatal multivitamin and mineral pill which contains extra folate.

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Is 9.5 hemoglobin low during pregnancy?

Introduction – Anemia is a major health problem that affects 25% to 50% of the population of the world and approximately 50% of pregnant women ( 1 ). Anemia in pregnancy is associated with increased rates of maternal and perinatal mortality, premature delivery, low birth weight, and other adverse outcomes ( 2 ).

Barooti in a systematic review illustrated that the frequency of anemia in Iran is 4.8-17.5 percent ( 3 ). During pregnancy, anemia increased more than fourfold from the first to third trimester ( 4 ). It is a well established fact that there is a physiological drop in hemoglobin (Hb) in the mid trimester ( 5 ).

This physiological drop is attributed to increase of plasma volume and hence decrease of blood viscosity ( 6 ) lead to better circulation in placenta ( 7 ). Research has shown that Hb and Hematocrit (Hct) concentrations typically decrease during the first trimester and reach the lowest levels at the end of second trimester and increase again during the third trimester of pregnancy ( 9 ).

  1. According to the classification of World Health Organization (WHO), pregnant women with hemoglobin levels less than 11.0 g/dl in the first and third trimesters and less than 10.5 g/dl in the second trimester are considered anemic ( Table I ) ( 11 ).
  2. Anemia in pregnant women detrimental to fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes ( 12, 13 ).

Low birth weight and preterm delivery have been persistently linked to anemia in pregnancy ( 14 – 17 ). Yi et al., revealed that anemia, but not hemoglobin concentration, before pregnancy was associated with an elevated risk of preterm delivery ( 18 ).

  1. Ozuki et al reported that moderate to severe, but not mild, maternal anemia appears to have an association intra uterian growth retardation ( 19 ).
  2. An improvement in prenatal mean hemoglobin concentration linearly increased birth weight ( 14 ).
  3. In another study, low birth weight and small for gestational age increased with severity of anemia in Korean women ( 18 ).Haggaz et al.

in a meta-analysis showed that anemia during early pregnancy, but not during late pregnancy was associated with slightly increased risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight( 20 ), Whereas Ahankari et al., in systematic review study found that anemia in the first and third trimesters was associated with increased risk of low birth weight and they emphasized that hemoglobin needs to be routinely investigated during pregnancy, and women with low level of hemoglobin should be treated to minimize harmful impact on neonatal health ( 1 ).
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Can hemoglobin increase in 10 days?

Failure of oral iron therapy – On occasion, the treatment of oral iron therapy does not result in the expected increase in hemoglobin. In general, patients with iron deficient anemia should manifest a response to iron with reticulocytosis in three to seven days, followed by an increase in hemoglobin in 2-4 weeks.

Theoretically, 500 mg of absorbed iron should produce 500 cc of packed cells, the amount in about 2 units of blood, or enough to raise the hemoglobin by about 2 g/dL. Unless the patient’s anemia is severe, completion of a 5000 mg dosing cycle of ingested elemental iron over one or more months (500 mg absorbed elemental iron) should therefore be sufficient to correct the patient’s hemoglobin to the normal range.

Patients may be assessed earlier in the iron replacement course to confirm an appropriate reticulocyte response. Considerations for an insufficient response include ongoing blood loss, malabsorption, which could be anatomical or inhibiting factors e.g.
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Which drink increases hemoglobin?

Q. Which juice is rich in iron? – A. Juices like prune juice, beetroot juice, pumpkin juice and spinach juice are rich plant-based iron sources. They are also a powerhouse of various vitamins and minerals, which increase your body’s healthy iron levels. Adding these juices to your diet with a mix of animal-based iron sources can help maximise the benefits.
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Which fruit is best for hemoglobin?

Other Tips to Increase Your Hemoglobin Levels at Home: –

Rely on Fruits: Apricots, apples, grapes, bananas, pomegranates and watermelons play a very important role in improving hemoglobin count. Apples are a delicious and suitable option when it comes to Increasing hemoglobin levels as they’re one of the most iron-rich fruits out there. Pomegranate is a rich source of both iron and calcium along with protein and fiber. Its nutritional value makes it a perfect source for people with low levels of hemoglobin. Add these fruits to increase hemoglobin to your bowl of cereal or oatmeal, or add them to your salads for a little sweetness, or put them in your milkshakes, smoothies or fruit juices.

Consume food cooked in iron utensils: This is because an iron utensil fortifies your food with iron, making it potent for people suffering from low hemoglobin levels.

Take help of Vitamin C Rich Foods: Include vitamin C in your diet as it helps your body to absorb iron more efficiently. Eat more gooseberry, oranges, lemon, sweet lime, strawberries, bell peppers, tomatoes, grapefruits, berries, as they are super rich in vitamin C. Make it a habit of consuming these natural sources of Vitamin C regularly.

Avoid iron blockers: Cut down eating foods that hinder iron absorption in your body, especially if you have a low haemoglobin count. Limit the intake of haemoglobin foods rich in polyphenols, tannins, phytates and oxalic acid such as tea, coffee, cocoa, soy products, wine, beer, cola and aerated drinks.

Opt for moderate to high intensity workouts: When you exercise, your body produces more hemoglobin to meet the increasing demand for oxygen throughout the body.

Add supplements when needed: Some cases of low hemoglobin count can’t be fixed through diet alone. You may need to take oral iron supplements or additional treatments. Before you start taking an iron supplement, consult your doctor.

Make sure to get your on a timely basis. This helps detect any lower levels well in advance and take appropriate measures. Like Like Love Haha Wow Sad Angry : How to Increase Haemoglobin? Top Foods That can Increase Haemoglobin Naturally | Metropolis TruHealth Blog
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Can haemoglobin increase in one week?

Summing Up on How to Increase Haemoglobin in a Week To maintain the optimum haemoglobin level in your body, you may need to take a diet rich in iron, beta-carotene, and vitamins such as vitamin A, B12, and C.
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Does drinking water increase hemoglobin?

Changes in the Blood Components Caused by Water Intake A steady intake of water, the body’s major constituent, is important to maintain good health, as regulation of water balance affects physiology, In this study, we found that water intake may improve anemia by increasing the hemoglobin index.

  • In the experimental group, the increase in hemoglobin was not significant, although there were significant increases in MCH and MCHC, indicating that water assists hemoglobin synthesis.
  • Our findings are supported by Colombo et al., who found that a large number of water molecules are needed for allosteric regulation of hemoglobin, from the deoxygenated tense state to the oxygenated relaxed state,

Furthermore, water plays a role in the allosteric constant, Therefore, a steady intake of water may influence hemoglobin synthesis, thereby alleviating anemia. CVD is a major cause of death globally, In recent studies, MPV, an indicator of platelet size and platelet activation, has been found to be a predictor of cardiovascular risk,

MPV has been found to be significantly higher in obese than in non-obese individuals, and an elevated MPV is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, In addition, in patients with hypertensive retinopathy, an elevated MPV was shown to correspond with increased severity of retinopathy,

Hs-CRP levels are used as an immunological marker of CVD risk, In this study, hs-CRP levels did not decrease significantly, although the decrease was greater in the experimental group than in the control group. Based on these results, we conclude that a steady intake of water may diminish the risk of CVD by decreasing the MPV and, perhaps, by decreasing the concentration of hs-CRP.

  1. IgG plays an important role in humoral immunity,
  2. In a study of the association between water intake and immunity in pigs, consumption of oxygenated drinking water was associated with increased immune activity, demonstrated by proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and interleukin-1β, an increase in the CD4+:CD8+ T-cell ratio, and boosted immune responses against bacterial infection,

In addition, consumption of oxygenated water was associated with an increase in the concentration of IgG and IgM in broiler chickens, Generally, primary immune deficiencies are caused by antibody deficiencies, and IVIG comprised of pooled IgG antibodies is used to treat immunodeficiency diseases.

  • Furthermore, IVIG is used to treat autoimmune and degenerative diseases,
  • Patients with autoimmune diseases that lead to autoantibody production, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systematic lupus erythematosus, and immunothrombocytopenia, have low blood concentrations of IgG; treatment with IVIG can suppress the autoimmune disease process via immune system modulation,

Therefore, the concentration of IgG in the blood is important for immunomodulatory responses. Water plays a role in transforming hemoglobin to the oxygenated relaxed state. Based on our results, we postulate that an increase in the proportion of oxygenated relaxed state of hemoglobin due to water consumption, may promote an increase in the concentrations of IgG, thereby improving humoral immunity.

In this study, we also evaluated a variety of other parameters, including lipid profiles and the levels of liver enzymes, lipoprotein (a), fibrinogen, and vitamin D. However, except for the hematologic parameters, hs-CRP, IgG, and lipid profiles, no differences were observed in the other parameters. In terms of the lipid profiles, the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride did not change.

However, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased, implying that a steady intake of water may protect the development of atherosclerosis, risk factor for CVD, although the increase was not significant (data not shown). A limitation of this study was that the sample size was too small to verify the findings at a population level; some participants were excluded due to medication and insufficient water intake.

  • Therefore, although this study suggests that a steady intake of water has beneficial effects on human health, additional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further elucidate its influences on physiological conditions.
  • Nevertheless, these findings may provide useful guidance in health care.

In conclusion, a steady intake of water may reduce anemia and CVD risk by increasing hemoglobin synthesis and decreasing MPV; it may also enhance humoral immunity by increasing IgG levels.
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How can I increase my hemoglobin in 10 minutes?

Foods that help increase hemoglobin levels: – 1. Increase folic acid intake Folic acid, a B-complex vitamin, is required to make red blood cells and a folic acid deficiency automatically leads to low levels of hemoglobin. Some of the good sources of folic acid are bananas, broccoli, chicken liver, wheat germ, dried beans, leafy vegetables and sprouts.

  • Beetroot, in fact, is one of the highest sources of folic acid.2.
  • Drink nettle tea Nettle is a herb that is a great source of vitamins B and C along with iron, all of which play a key role in raising hemoglobin levels.
  • Add about two teaspoons of dried nettle leaves to a cup of hot water and allow it to steep for about 10 minutes.

Strain and add a dash of honey. Drink this twice daily.3. Load up on vitamin C It is important to take a combination of iron and vitamin C as the latter is a carrier rich molecule that could be used for better absorption of iron. Eat vitamin C rich foods like lemon, oranges, papaya, strawberries,, grapefruit, tomatoes and bell peppers. How To Increase Hemoglobin In A Week During Pregnancy how to increase hemoglobin naturally: It is important to take a combination of iron and vitamin C 4. Eat a lot of iron rich foods Iron deficiency is the most common cause of, The top iron rich foods include green leafy vegetables like spinach, beetroot, tofu, asparagus, chicken liver, pumpkin seeds, dates, raisins, and,5.

  • Do not forget to include more apples An apple helps maintain a normal level of hemoglobin, as it is rich in iron plus other healthy nutrients that are required for healthy hemoglobin count.
  • You can either eat one apple a day, or drink juice made with half apple and half beetroot juice twice a day.6.
  • Avoid iron blockers Try not consuming coffee, tea, cola, wine or beer, all of which are generally considered iron blockers, especially if you already have low hemoglobin levels.

Load up on these foods and avoid any iron blockers that cause harm. Consult a doctor in case the hemoglobin levels fall significantly. : How To Increase Hemoglobin: Natural Ways To Up Your Platelet Count
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Which fruit increase hemoglobin during pregnancy?

5 foods to eat during pregnancy –

  1. Produce containing Vitamin C, like oranges, strawberries, bell peppers, and broccoli, support the baby’s growth and improves iron absorption.
  2. Foods that have iron, such as beans, lentils, green leafy vegetables, meat, and spinach all support the mother’s body in making more blood for both mom and baby.
  3. Foods rich in calcium, including pasteurized dairy products (yogurt, cow’s milk and hard cheeses) as well as almonds, broccoli, and garbanzo beans will help support development of bones and teeth.
  4. Foods containing Omega-3 fatty acids (EHA and DHA) such as sardines, salmon, trout and canned light tuna. Or choose a prenatal supplement with Omega-3s if you don’t like fish.
  5. Drinking plenty of water to stay hydrated supports the proper delivery of nutrients through the blood to the baby and may help prevent constipation, hemorrhoids and urinary tract infections for the mother.

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Does beetroot increase haemoglobin fast?

Beetroot – How To Increase Hemoglobin In A Week During Pregnancy Stack up on beetroot to increase your blood count. (Photo: Getty Images) Loaded with iron, minerals and vitamins, beetroots help repair and reactivate red blood cells, which in turn increase the oxygen supply. Beetroot juice topped with carrots, oranges and even amla is an excellent combination to fight low haemoglobin levels.

Batra mentioned, “Beetroot is one of the best ways to increase haemoglobin levels. It is not only high in iron content, but also folic acid along with potassium and fibre. Drink beetroot juice every day to ensure a healthy blood count.” She added that one can combine beetroots and pomegranates in a juice that can be enjoyed as a mid-morning or post-workout drink.

“It will not only boost the iron but will also clear your skin and make it glow,” she said. ALSO READ | Diabetic? Count on these whole grains to control your blood sugar levels
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How much Hb is required for normal delivery?

The pregnancy is a sensitive period in women life; pregnant women should avoid any risk factor that can affect their health as well as the growth and development of their baby. One of the critical problems that pregnant women may face is iron deficiency and its anemia which represents a risk factor for preterm delivery, prematurity and small for gestational age, birth, and weight. The world health organization (WHO) estimates that an average of 56% of pregnant women in developing countries is anemic. This percentage ranges from 35-75% in specific areas, and is much higher than the 18% of pregnant women diagnosed with anemia in developed countries. Iron deficiency during pregnancy is thought to be caused by combination of factors such as previously decreased iron supply, the iron requirements of the growing fetus, and expansion of maternal plasma volume.1 Iron deficiency development is widely common among women especially pregnant ones since iron should be supported to the mother and her fetus which makes the intake crucial and important. And regarding that iron (heme and non-heme) has a low bioavailability, food enhancers and supplements are necessary for pregnant women especially in the begging and end of their pregnant period for support and growth. Enhancers of iron include meat, fish, and vitamin C as the most common ones while polyphenols, phytates in tea and coffee, and calcium represent the most important inhibitors of iron absorption. Good sources of iron should be taken with enhancers so that the absorption of iron increases. Pregnant women should be educated enough and well informed from their doctors to avoid or lessen the occurrence of such problem. This study was conducted in Lebanon to determine the prevalence and risk factors of low hemoglobin levels in pregnant women and the importance of iron intake in aiming changing these levels to decrease its risks. Women of fertile age and pregnant-lactating as well as their infants and young children are particularly affected with iron deficiency and its anemia resulting in serious health and functional consequences. It is estimated that about 2,150million people are iron deficient, and that this deficiency is severe enough to cause anemia in 1,200million people globally. About 90% of all anemias have an iron deficiency component. Roughly 47% of non-pregnant women and 60% of pregnant women have anemia worldwide, and including iron deficiency without anemia the figures may approach 60 and 90% respectively. In the industrial world as a whole, anemia prevalence during pregnancy averages 18%, and over 30% of these populations suffer from iron deficiency.2 The woman’s diet is the main source of nourishment for the baby. In fact, the link between what the mothers consumes and the health of the baby is much stronger than once. Eating a healthy, varied diet in pregnancy will help get most of the vitamins and minerals that are essential during the period of pregnancy including iron and folic acid. It is best to get vitamins and minerals from the food, but pregnant women are in need of many supplements that are essential to their body as well to their babies including iron and folic acid. Iron is an essential mineral in the pregnancy period to the mother and to the baby as well. Supplementation of pregnant women with iron and folic acid reduces the incidence of hemoglobin <110 g/l to under 5%. The hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and red cell count fall during pregnancy because the expansion of the plasma volume is greater than that of the red cell mass. However, there is a rise in total circulating hemoglobin directly related to the increase in red cell mass. This in turn depends partly on the iron status of the individual. That's why pregnant women are recommended to have a hemoglobin level of 12-16g/DL and any value below 12 is considered as iron deficiency and below 10.5 as anemia. Iron deficient anemic women have shorter pregnancies than non-anemic or even anemic but not iron deficient pregnant women. All anemic pregnant women had a higher risk of pre-term delivery in relation to non-anemic women. The iron-deficient, anemic group has twice the risk of those with anemia in general.3 There a five to sevenfold increase in preterm delivery and low birth weight if the lowest hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy (https://www.bmj.com/content/310/6978/489.full.print). Moreover results of randomized clinical trials in the United States and in Nepal that involved early supplementation with iron showed some reduction in risk of low birth weight or preterm low birth weight.4 Maternal hemoglobin levels are also associated with the weight of the baby at birth; a study done by The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2000 conclude that the minimum incidence of low birth weight (<2.5kg) and of preterm labor (<37 completed weeks) occurred in association with a hemoglobin concentration of 95–105g/L. Such values are commonly considered to represent anemia.5 However the weight of the baby varies in the last trimester of pregnancy; According to the American Pregnancy Association, a fetus weigh around 2pounds at 27weeks (7 th month of pregnancy), 4 to 4.5 pounds by 32weeks (8 th month of pregnancy) and grows up to 6.5 to 10 pounds in full term delivery (till the 9 th month).6 Several dietary factors can influence the absorption of iron. Absorption enhancing factor to meat, fish and poultry is ascorbic acid (vitamin C); inhibiting factors are plant components in vegetables, tea and coffee (e.g., polyphenols, phytates), and calcium. Specific attention should be paid to the effects of tea on iron absorption.7 Ascorbic acid is the only main absorption enhancer in vegetarian diets found in Broccoli, and Citrus fruits (oranges, and lemon) while phytate and phenols are the two main inhibitors of iron absorption that can reduce the bioavailability of iron by binding to it; these compounds are found in tea, coffee and chocolate. An excess of calcium rich dairy can limit iron absorption. Milk can prevent your body from absorbing an adequate amount of iron. Even though milk has a high content of iron it contains calcium, an essential mineral and the only known substance to inhibit absorption of both non-heme and heme iron.8 Regarding the relation between hemoglobin levels of pregnant women and their disease status (diabetes type 1 and 2, gestational diabetes, hypertension and heart disease), studies differ in their results: some of them demonstrate that there is positive relation between hemoglobin/iron levels and disease status of individuals while others show a negative one. In a study done in 2003 by anemia and diabetes because the risk of becoming iron-deficient increases when diabetes is present; according to this study diabetic patients are more prone to have lower hemoglobin/iron levels than disease-free patients.9 Another study done by Dr. Trevor J Orchard reveal that Hemoglobin levels may be higher as high as 18.8 g/dl in type 1 diabetes than in the general population.10 In 2008, the department of Cardiac Services and General Practice in School of Medicine in Canada conducted a study resulting in that the prevalence of anemia in hypertension, a condition characterized by endothelial dysfunction, is unclear yet.11 However in 2012, it was revealed that hemoglobin level was positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressures.12 Age and exercise are two factors that are still being tested nowadays to determine if there is a relation with the level of hemoglobin/ iron in pregnant women. In a study carried out in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital and Namitambo Health Centre Malawi, analysis showed an increased risk of anemia for women under 20years of age, but when corrected for gravidity and trimester at booking the increased risk with young age no longer.13 Studies conducted to measure the effect of exercise on hemoglobin level in pregnant women are so minimal knowing that exercise is safe during pregnancy and proper exercise during pregnancy will likely help with weight loss after delivery of your baby. Exercise does not put the woman at risk for miscarriage in a normal pregnancy.14 but there is no data concerning the relation between hemoglobin or iron and workout. The data was collected over one month from three different gynecologists: Dr. Modi Farhat, Dr. Iman Mallak and Dr. Jouhaina Bou Chakra in Chouf area targeting pregnant women in their last trimester. The participants of the study were aged between 20 and 38years old. The main objective of these observations and research is to determine the prevalence and the effect of low hemoglobin levels on the pregnancy and the baby's weight. A total of 50 pregnant women, 20 from each clinic, participated in the study and were asked to complete an 11 questions survey including yes/no questions and multiple-choice questions. The variables were set according to the risk factors of hemoglobin levels during pregnancy and the expected outcomes on the woman and her baby as proposed in the introduction and the literature review of the report. The questionnaire consists on the following variables:

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  1. Age (in years)
  2. Parity(Number of pregnancy:1è First, 2è Second or third, 3è Four and more)
  3. Stage of the last trimester ( 1è 7th, 2è 8th, 3è 9th month)
  4. Number of meals per day beside snacks ( 1è1-2 meals,2è 3-5 meals, èMore than 5meals)
  5. Supplementation taken during this stage (1è Calcium, 2è Iron, è Folic acid 4è Multivitamins and minerals)
  6. Disease status (1è Heart disease, 2è Diabetes type 1, 3è Diabetes type 2,
  7. 4è Gestational diabetes, 5è Hypertension)
  8. Meat/ poultry/ fish consumption per week ( 1è Once, 2è Twice, 3è More than three times)
  9. Consumption of meats with which vegetable (1è Tomato, 2è Broccoli, 3è Lemon, 4è Spinach 5è Combination of vegetables)
  10. Tea or coffee consumption after meal (1è Yes, 2è No )
  11. Consumption of milk and fortified cornflakes (1è Yes, 2è No )
  12. Exercising (sport) (1è Yes, 2è No)

The main variables of the research were chosen with respect to the iron (as form of hemoglobin) enhancers and inhibitors and the number of parity, since many findings consist on these variables on affecting hemoglobin levels in pregnant women resulting in undesired effects on the pregnant and the baby’s health.

  1. The hemoglobin levels of each pregnant woman were measured through blood tests done on a regular basis.
  2. Supported form the doctors).
  3. However the weight of the unborn baby was measured by the doctors (via Ultra Sound); the weight of the baby is compared to a standard weight range (normal) according to the American Pregnancy Association in order to specify if the weight of the baby is healthy for the month of pregnancy.

IBM SPSS Software is used for the analysis of results. The data was entered and organized in order to be tabled and tested for analysis. Descriptive statistics Before testing all the variables that may affect the hemoglobin levels in pregnant women, detecting their daily food intake frequency is so important for the direction of the study ( Figure 1 ), ( Table 1 ). Figure 1 Meals per day.

Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid 1-2 12 20.0 20.0 20.0
3-5 39 65.0 65.0 85.0
>5 9 15.0 15.0 100.0
Total 60 100.0 100.0

Table 1 Meals per day Disease status 88.33% of the women in this study are disease free while 11.67% are diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2 and gestational diabetes patients ( Figure 2 ), ( Table 2 ). Figure 2 Disease status.

Frequency Percent Valid percent Cumulative percent
Valid Diabetes type 1 4 6.7 6.7 6.7
Diabetes type 2 1 1.7 1.7 8.3
Gestational diabetes 2 3.3 3.3 11.7
None 53 88.3 88.3 100
Total 60 100 100

Table 2 Disease status Supplementation intake Calcium supplementation recorded the lowest intake: 56.67% do not take calcium as supplement. More than 90% (93.33, 95 and 98.33%) take iron or folic acid or multivitamins and minerals supplementation during their pregnancy ( Figure 3 ). Figure 3 Supplementation intakes. Number of pregnancy 71.67% of the participants have at least 1 child or more (45% have 1 or 2 children and 26.67% have 3 children or more) ( Figure 4 ). Figure 4 Number of pregnancy. Hemoglobin levels status This pie chart shows the distribution of hemoglobin level among the pregnant women where 58.33% are normal (12-16g/dl) and 41.67% are abnormal ( Figure 5 ). Figure 5 Hemoglobin levels. Weight of the baby status Using the ultra sound technique the weight of the unborn baby can be measured; 65% of the unborn babies are normal are of normal weight while 35% are of abnormal weight according to the month of pregnancy of the mother ( Figure 6 ). Figure 6 Weight of the baby. Age The participants’ age varies between 20(minimum) and 38(maximum) with a mean age of 27years old ( Table 3 ).

Statistics
Age
N Valid 60
Missing 0
Mean 27.00
Median 26.00
Mode 25
Minimum 20
Maximum 38

Table 3 Age Meat Consumption per week Meat consumption among the sample chosen is quite high since 85% of the pregnant consumes more than once per week meat products ( Figure 7 ), ( Table 4 ). Figure 7 Meat consumption.

Weight of baby Total
Normal Abnormal
Hemoglobin Level Normal Count 31 4 35
% within Weight of Baby 79.50% 19.00% 58.30%
Deficiency Count 8 17 25
% within Weight of Baby 20.50% 81.00% 41.70%
Count 39 21 60
Total % within Weight of Baby 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

Table 4 Hemoglobin Level* weight of baby cross tabulation Hemoglobin level vs weight of the baby Using Crosstabs: 79.5% (31 out of 39) of the babies are of normal weight with a normal mothers’ hemoglobin level while 20.5% (8 out of 39) of the babies are of normal weight with a deficient mothers’ hemoglobin level.19% (4 out of 21) of the babies are of abnormal weight with a normal mother’s hemoglobin level while 81% (17 out of 21) of the babies are of abnormal weight with a deficient mothers’ hemoglobin level.

Research question

Is there a correlation between age and hemoglobin level? The applied test statistics: Non parametric correlation. The null hypothesis: There is a correlation between age and hemoglobin level. The alternative hypothesis: There is no correlation between age and hemoglobin level ( Table 5 ).

Hemoglobin level Age
Spearman’s rho Hemoglobin Level Correlation Coefficient 1.000 0.203
Sig. (2-tailed) , 0.12
N 60 60
Age Correlation Coefficient 0.203 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.12 ,
N 60 60

Table 5 Correlations As it is showed in the table above the correlation coefficient is 0.203 indicating that there is a weak positive correlation between hemoglobin levels and age of the pregnant women. These findings contradict the results of previous studies mentioned in the literature section of the report.

Since there is a correlation between these two variables even if it is a weak one so we accept H0 and reject HA. Research question Is there a correlation between meat consumption and hemoglobin level? The applied test statistics: Non parametric correlation. The null hypothesis: There is a positive correlation between meat consumption and hemoglobin level.

The alternative hypothesis: There is no positive correlation between meat consumption and hemoglobin level ( Table 6 ).

Hemoglobin level Meat consumption
Spearman’s rho Hemoglobin level Correlation Coefficient 1.000 -.435**
Sig. (2-tailed) , 0.001
N 60 60
Meat consumption Correlation Coefficient -.435** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.001 ,
N 60 60

Table 6 Correlations **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) r=-0.435 indicates a negative moderate correlation between meat consumption of pregnant women and their hemoglobin levels. These surprising results does not apply to the knowing fact that meat consumption increase hemoglobin level since heme present in meat is the base of the hemoglobin compound.

In other hand, the absorption of iron (hemoglobin) especially during pregnancy period is affected by some enhancers which are not consumed properly by our study participants justifying these results. So we accept HA and reject H0 Research question Is there a correlation between number of pregnancy and hemoglobin level? The applied test statistics: Non parametric correlation.

The null hypothesis: There is a correlation between number of pregnancy and hemoglobin level. The alternative hypothesis: There is no correlation between number of pregnancy and hemoglobin level ( Table 7 ).

Number of pregnancy Hemoglobin level
Spearman’s rho Number of Pregnancy Correlation Coefficient 1.000 ,381**
Sig. (2-tailed) , 0.003
N 60 60
Hemoglobin Level Correlation Coefficient ,381** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.003 ,
N 60 60

Table 7 Correlations **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) We accept H0 and reject HA since r=0.381 indicating a moderate positive correlation between number of pregnancy (parity) and hemoglobin levels in pregnant women. This confirms previous findings and increases the interest of pregnant women in their hemoglobin levels that decreases with higher parity.

Sport Total
Yes No
Hemoglobin level Normal Count 15 20 35
Expected Count 12.8 22.2 35.0
Deficiency Count 7 18 25
Expected Count 9.2 15.8 25.0
Count 22 38 60
Total Expected Count 22.0 38.0 60.0
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Table 8 Hemoglobin Level* sport cross tabulation As we see in the table above, the expected count is the value that we expect to observe if there was no significant association between hemoglobin and sport. àWe expect to observe around 13 normal hemoglobin women who do sports and 22 normal hemoglobin women who do not do sports and so on.

Value df Asymp. sig. (2-sided) Exact sig. (2-sided) Exact sig. (1-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 1.386a 1 0.239
Continuity Correctionb 0.82 1 0.365
Likelihood Ratio 1.408 1 0.235
Fisher’s exact test 0.286 0.183
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.363 1 0.243
N of Valid Cases 60

Table 9 Chi-square tests a.0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 9.17 b. Computed only for a 2×2 table In this case, the assumption of the chi-square test is not violated (<20%). The p-value 0.239 (2.93%) is less than the 5% level of significance (alpha) so the results are statistically significant so we accept the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant association between hemoglobin levels and sport. Hemoglobin level is dependent on sport. To test how strong this significance is, the phi test is done since the sample size is small: ( Table 10 ).

Symmetric Measures
Value Approx. sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi 0.152 0.239
Cramer’s V 0.152 0.239
N of Valid Cases 60

Table 10 Symmetric Measures

  1. Not assuming the null hypothesis.
  2. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

0.152 is the correlation coefficient (size of the effect) showing a weak association between hemoglobin level and sport, justifying what is mentioned in the literature of the report. Research question: Is there a correlation between disease status and hemoglobin level? The applied test statistics: Non parametric correlation.

Hemoglobin level Disease status
Spearman’s rho Hemoglobin Level Correlation Coefficient 1.000 ,086
Sig. (2-tailed) , ,514
N 60 60
Disease Status Correlation Coefficient ,086 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) ,514 ,
N 60 60

Table 11 Correlations We accept H0 and reject HA since there is a very weak positive correlation (0.086) between disease status of the pregnant women and their hemoglobin levels. Research question: Is there a correlation between coffee or tea consumption and hemoglobin level? The applied test statistics: Non parametric correlation.

Hemoglobin Level Coffee or Tea consumption
Spearman’s rho Hemoglobin Level Correlation Coefficient 1.000 -.585**
Sig. (2-tailed) , ,000
N 60 60
Coffee or Tea Consumption Correlation Coefficient -.585** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) ,000 ,
N 60 60

Table 12 Correlations According to the correlation table above, the hemoglobin levels decrease with the increase of coffee and tea consumption. As we know caffeine contained in coffee and tea is the main cause of iron / hemoglobin non-absorption. Spearman’s rho is -0.585 so a moderate negative correlation exists between coffee or tea consumption (caffeine) and hemoglobin levels so H0 is accepted.

Hemoglobin level Calcium supplementation
Spearman’s rho Hemoglobin Level Correlation Coefficient 10000 -.352**
Sig. (2-tailed) , 0.006
N 60 60
Calcium Supplementation Correlation Coefficient -.352** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.006 ,
N 60 60

Table 13 Correlations **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) In the pie chart in the descriptive statistics section, calcium supplementation intake among the participants recorded the lowest percentage (43.33%). This low value is justified by the correlation coefficient (-0.352) of the table above: since a negative correlation between hemoglobin levels and calcium supplementation exists we can say that physicians avoid the prescription of calcium as supplements because hemoglobin levels fall when calcium is consumed due to its inhibition effect on hemoglobin absorption.

Research question

Is there a correlation between weight of the baby and hemoglobin level? The applied test statistics: Non parametric correlation. The null hypothesis: There is a positive correlation between weight of the baby and hemoglobin level. The alternative hypothesis: There is no positive correlation between weight of the baby and hemoglobin level ( Table 14 ).

Hemoglobin level Weight of baby
Spearman’s rho Hemoglobin Level Correlation Coefficient 1.000 ,585**
Sig. (2-tailed) , 0
N 60 60
Weight of Baby Correlation Coefficient ,585** 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) 0 ,
N 60 60

Table 14 Correlations **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) A moderate positive correlation exists between hemoglobin levels and weight of the unborn baby. This result justifies the rapprochement in percentages of normal hemoglobin levels (58.33%) and normal weight baby (65%) considering that almost every normal hemoglobin pregnant will have a normal weight baby.

Research question

Is the association between number of meals per day and hemoglobin level significant? The applied test statistics: Chi-square test. The null hypothesis: There is no significant association between number of meals per day and hemoglobin level. The alternative hypothesis: There is significant association between number of meals per day and hemoglobin level ( Table 15 ).

Meals per day Total
2-Jan 5-Mar >5
Hemoglobin Level normal Count 4 24 7 35
Expected Count 7.0 22.8 5.3 35
deficiency Count 8 15 2 25
Expected Count 5/0 16.3 3.8 25.0
Count 12 39 9 60
Total Expected Count 12.0 39.0 9.0 60.0

Table 15 Hemoglobin Level* Meals per Day Cross tabulation As we see in the table above, the expected count is the value that we expect to observe if there was no significant association between hemoglobin and sport. The chi square test helps to determine if those observed count are different enough for the test to be significant (association to be significant).

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 4.651a 2 0.098
Likelihood Ratio 4.722 2 0.094
Linear-by-Linear Association 4.378 1 0.036
N of Valid Cases 60

Table 16 Chi-square tests a.1cells (16.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.75. In this case, the assumption of the chi-square test is not violated (<20%). The p-value 0.098 (0.98%) is less than the 5% level of significance (alpha) so the results are statistically significant so we accept the alternative hypothesis that there is a significant association between hemoglobin levels and number of meals per day. Hemoglobin level is dependent on the number of meals consumed per day. To test how strong this significance is, the phi test is done since the sample size is small: ( Table 17 ).

Value Approx. sig.
Nominal by Nominal Phi 0.278 0.098
Cramer’s V 0.278 0.098
N of Valid Cases 60

Table 17 Symmetric measures a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.0.278 is the correlation coefficient (size of the effect) showing a weak association between hemoglobin level and number of meals consumed per day.

Model Variables Entered Variables Removed Method
1 Coffee or Tea, Disease Status, Number of Pregnancy, Meat Consumptionb , Enter

Table 18 Variables entered/Removeda a. Dependent Variable: Hemoglobin Level b. Dependent Variable: Hemoglobin Level

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 ,683a 0.467 0.428 0.376

Table 18 a. Predictors, (Constant), Coffee or Tea, Disease Status, Number of Pregnancy, Meat Consumption

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 2.124 0.38 5.582 0
Number of Pregnancy 0.153 0.068 0.23 2.242 0.029
Disease Status 0.03 0.044 0.068 0.684 0.497
Meat Consumption -0.186 0.086 -0.231 -2.165 0.035
Coffee or Tea -0.482 0.109 -0.466 -4.419 0

Table 18 a. Dependent Variable, Hemoglobin Level As we see in the tables above, R is 0.683 which means that there is a correlation between hemoglobin and the others 4 variables (number of pregnancy, disease status, meat consumption and consumption of coffee or tea).

Model R R square Adjusted R square Std. Error of the estimate
1 ,726a 0.528 0.484 0.357

Table 19 a. Predictors, (Constant), Spinach With Meat, Vegetables With Meat, Tomato With Meat, Broccoli With Meat, Lemon With Meat

ANOVAa
Model Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.
1 Regression 7.695 5 1.539 12.064 ,000b
Residual 6.889 54 0.128
Total 14.583 59

Table 19 a. Dependent Variable, Hemoglobin Level b. Predictors, (Constant), Spinach with Meat, Vegetables with Meat, Tomato with Meat, Broccoli with Meat, Lemon with Meat

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized coefficients Standardized coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 0.596 0.464 1.284 0.205
Tomato With Meat -0.146 0.112 -0.142 -1.313 0.195
Broccoli With Meat -0.037 0.116 -0.032 -0.32 0.75
Vegetables With Meat 0.07 0.106 0.07 0.66 0.512
Lemon With Meat 0.653 0.123 0.662 5.297 0
Spinach With Meat 0.029 0.104 0.027 0.277 0.783

Table 19 a. Dependent Variable: Hemoglobin Level This test helps us how the type of food consumed with meat affect the hemoglobin levels. Knowing that some of these foods are inhibitors (tomato and broccoli) and enhancers (vegetables, lemon, spinach) of iron absorption, according to the table tomato and broccoli affect negatively hemoglobin levels justifying the finding in many previous studies.

While vegetables, lemon and spinach affect it positively with a higher positive association with lemon consumption. The results of this study were consistent with the recent findings of other studies concerning the effect of dietary habits on hemoglobin levels and its effects on the fetus. Some results contradict previous findings like the relation between age vs hemoglobin, sports vs hemoglobin and meat consumption vs hemoglobin.

Furthermore, 85% of the participants consume meat products more than once per week resulting in a good quantity of iron (hemoglobin) but seems that the way of consuming meats is being incomplete because of the wrong consumption of enhancers to ensure the arrival of hemoglobin to the mother’s blood and in fact to the baby’s blood.88.33% of the sample is disease free participants contributing in accurate results since diseases may cause changes in the metabolism of the individual or in the distribution of the foods’ ingested nutrients, minerals and other compounds including iron/hemoglobin.

The highest correlation coefficient between hemoglobin and the variables is the 0.585 recorded from hemoglobin and the weight of the baby confirming several previous studies that the baby is so affected by the mother’s hemoglobin. The hemoglobin levels in the pregnant woman are affected by not the quantity of heme and non-heme iron only but the enhancers of absorption.

Good enhancers must be consumed by every woman, non-pregnant, preparing for pregnancy and pregnant one. In the pregnancy period the need for the mother is higher than ever since she’s eating for two. During this period, not only the weight of the baby is affected by low hemoglobin levels of the mother; many outcomes are scientifically proved that are caused by such deficiency affecting the whole life of the baby mentally and physically.

  • Pregnancy requires additional maternal absorption of iron.
  • Maternal iron status cannot be assessed simply from hemoglobin concentration because pregnancy produces increases in plasma volume and the hemoglobin concentration decreases accordingly.
  • So many other factors must be considered in future research.

In previous studies, sport shows no relation with hemoglobin levels but since a correlation coefficient of 0.152 exists, a start for new research must be present. Some of the limitations of our study are:

  1. The sample size is a bit small to come up with standardization.
  2. The participants were from different background, few of them were Syrian refugees that receive a low income resulting in low quality food and nonuse of supplementation.
  3. Few of the Syrian refugees that have participated in this study had given birth with no rest to the body to replenish the losses during the first pregnancy; this fact may be a reason why some of the pregnant woman follow a rich and balanced diet with the proper supplementation but still have low hemoglobin level.

None. Author declares that there is no conflict of interest.
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Can low hemoglobin harm baby?

How does iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy affect the baby? – Severe iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy increases the risk of premature birth (when delivery occurs before 37 complete weeks of pregnancy). Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy is also associated with having a low birth weight baby and postpartum depression.
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Why my Hb is not increasing in pregnancy?

What does untreated anemia do to the body? – Untreated anemia can get worse over time. Having too little oxygen in the blood can damage your organs. It also forces the heart to work harder, increasing the risk of:

(irregular heartbeat).,

The best thing you can do for anemia prevention is to eat at least 30 milligrams (three servings) of iron each day. If you can’t get that much iron in your diet, talk to your provider about taking an iron supplement. You should also take a prenatal vitamin daily.

If possible, you should start taking prenatal vitamins before you get pregnant. Some prenatal vitamins don’t have enough iron in them. So, talk to your healthcare provider to determine which type of prenatal vitamin is best for you. Keep in mind that you can do all the right things and still get mild anemia during pregnancy.

That’s because of the natural increase in blood volume. If you feel tired, dizzy or have any other symptoms, talk to your provider. If treated, the outlook for someone with anemia during pregnancy is very good. You can easily treat this condition with supplements and minor diet adjustments.

Dizziness. Headaches. Fast heartbeat. Pale skin. Sore tongue. Unintended movement in your lower legs.

If you’re worried, ask your provider about testing for anemia and what you can do to maintain healthy red blood cell levels throughout your pregnancy.
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How quickly can hemoglobin change?

Early changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after packed red cell transfusion in patients with acute anemia – PubMed Background: Equilibration of hemoglobin concentration after transfusion has been estimated to take about 24 hours, but some studies have shown that earlier measurements reflect steady-state values in persons who have not bled recently. This study was aimed at assessing the changes over time in hemoglobin concentration after transfusion in acutely anemic patients because of recent bleeding. Study design and methods: Thirty-two normovolemic patients recovering from an acute bleeding episode who were no longer thought to be bleeding and who received a 2-unit red cell transfusion were studied. At baseline and 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes and 24 hours after transfusion, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit values were measured. Results: The administration of 2 units of packed red cells elicited a 24-hour increase of 22.4 +/- 6.8 g per L in hemoglobin concentration. Hemoglobin values were not different at any of the defined posttransfusion times. Hematocrit levels experienced similar changes over time. Agreement between 15-minute and 24-hour values was excellent, as only 6 percent of patients exhibited a clinically significant difference (> 6 g/L) between the hemoglobin measurements. Conclusion: Hemoglobin and hematocrit values rapidly equilibrate after transfusion in normovolemic patients who are recovering from an acute bleeding episode. This fact would allow a rapid assessment of the effects of transfusion and of the recurrence of bleeding in patients remaining at risk. : Early changes in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after packed red cell transfusion in patients with acute anemia – PubMed
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How fast does hemoglobin recovery?

Your iron levels – The body stores iron in the form of 2 proteins – ferritin (in men it accounts for about 70% of stored iron, in women 80%) and haemosiderin. The proteins are found in the liver, bone marrow, spleen and muscles. If too much iron is taken out of storage and not replaced through dietary sources, iron stores may become depleted and haemoglobin levels fall.
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Can hemoglobin change from day to day?

Discussion – We determined that fluctuations in hemoglobin levels are very common, with almost 90% of patients having hemoglobin levels in some degree of flux at any point in time. Our detailed assessment of the possible patterns of hemoglobin level fluctuation during the 6-mo study period showed 729 possible patterns, and 727 are represented in the national data.

  1. The patterns of fluctuating hemoglobin levels over time were significantly associated with comorbidity and severity of disease as measured by hospitalizations, hospitalizations for infection, length of hospital stays, and number of comorbid conditions.
  2. Not unexpectedly, patients with persistently low hemoglobin levels had the highest degree of comorbidity and hospitalization, a finding that is consistent with earlier studies that reported the characteristics of individuals with persistently low hemoglobin levels ( 7 ).

Surprisingly, however, the HA group, which had large fluctuations in hemoglobin levels, had degrees of comorbidity and hospitalization similar to those with hemoglobin levels near the lower boundary of the target range. Clinical monitoring of hemoglobin levels traditionally has centered on a cross-sectional view of monthly hemoglobin data that are submitted to payers.

  1. On the basis of this approach, overall distribution of hemoglobin levels across the population under treatment seems to change very little ( Figure 1 ).
  2. From this perspective, providers seem to be making little progress toward bringing patient hemoglobin levels into the K/DOQI target range.
  3. However, as Figure 2 shows, when the patients who were classified in the first month are followed over time, hemoglobin levels for the group regress toward the population mean, moving within the K/DOQI target range with large SD.
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When the patients who were classified at the end of the 6-mo study period are tracked backward to month 1, their hemoglobin levels also approached the population mean within the target range at the beginning of the study period. From this perspective, hemoglobin levels of patients with ESRD seem rarely to remain stable.

  1. The patterns described in our study on a large-population level are similar to those described by Fishbane and Berns ( 6 ) as evidence of the cycling of patient hemoglobin levels over time.
  2. Fluctuation of hemoglobin levels seems to be a common clinical event and seems to be associated with comorbidity and infectious complications.

Fishbane and Berns ( 6 ) suggested that adjusting epoetin doses when patient hemoglobin levels exceed the audit level of 12.5 g/dl may be a major source of the fluctuation of patients’ hemoglobin levels once they reach that point. Our study did not use provider-level data; the impact of this and other provider practices should be assessed in detail on the basis of provider ownership status and its change over time.

Although Fishbane and Berns ( 6 ) suggested provider practices as the main reason for the cycling of hemoglobin levels, their study also showed significant degrees of comorbidity and hospitalization, even though they assessed patients with fewer than 10 d of hospitalization during their study period.

In contrast to their analyses, we found that comorbidity and hospitalization for infection play important roles as random events that may be outside the control of providers. Catheter infections, pneumonias, and gastrointestinal bleeding episodes all contribute to fluctuating hemoglobin levels and help to create the marked instability of hemoglobin levels over time.

  • Preventing these clinical infectious events may be difficult, but attempts to do so could help to reduce both morbidity and the fluctuation of hemoglobin levels, yielding more cost-effective anemia treatment.
  • The Fistula First program that was initiated by CMS promotes the reduction of dialysis catheter use and the attendant infectious complications and costly hospitalizations.

Vaccinations for influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia potentially could reduce these complications. Unfortunately, there are few data to indicate that these measures will change the frequency of hemoglobin level fluctuations. Our study has important limitations that should be considered.

  1. The data that are available for this large national assessment were from reported claims for epoetin treatment, which require the submission of the last hemoglobin level before the last epoetin dose of the billing period.
  2. Many providers assess hemoglobin levels weekly or every 2 wk, possibly affecting the changes in epoetin dosages and subsequent hemoglobin levels and making the exact relationship of hemoglobin level to EPO dosage change difficult to determine.

Clinical protocols by providers that address guidelines for adjustments to epoetin dosages may vary but are not reported on the CMS claims, making assessment of the effect of provider differences from this data set difficult. Similarity in results from our study, based on a large sample size, and from the Fishbane and Berns ( 6 ) study, based on all hemoglobin level data from a single provider, point toward the likelihood that the patterns noted would persist and may represent both provider dosing practices and morbidity factors.

  • Because EPO claims are the only source of hemoglobin level data, the impact of excluding patients with no claims during 1 or more months of the study period cannot be assessed fully.
  • Although EPO doses may be held when patient hemoglobin levels are elevated, this tends to be a random event of a transient nature.

Because some providers seem to dose even when levels are elevated, held doses may have a minor effect on the observations. Nearly 90% of the EPO-treated patients experienced major variability, suggesting the contribution of other patterns. The impact of fluctuating patterns of hemoglobin levels on patient outcomes is unclear and should be assessed.

The significant associations between the fluctuation patterns and the degree of morbidity and infectious complications suggest that the hemoglobin level data are highly confounded by provider practices and medical complications. The marked fluctuations in hemoglobin levels over time create substantial classification bias that changes over even a few months.

The time-dependent nature of the hemoglobin level fluctuations and the frequent morbidity events make anemia-related outcome studies more complex than previously appreciated, such that simple Cox regression outcomes with fixed covariates may have substantial biases that are based on misclassification.

  • More advanced time-dependent marginal structural models and structural nested models may be needed to address these complex biochemical and comorbidity relationships.
  • Future analyses also should be carried out to define degrees of variability; differentiate more complex variability patterns and their effects on outcomes; identify clinician dosing adjustment practices; and focus on the major causes of variability, such as medical and surgical hospitalizations, infections, and gastrointestinal bleeding.

As of April 2006, CMS policy mandates a 25% reduction in EPO dosage for patients whose hemoglobin levels exceed 13 g/dl in any given month and reduces payment by 25% regardless of whether the dosage is reduced. The new payment policy likely will reduce EPO dosages for patients whose hemoglobin levels exceed 13 g/dl.

However, whether the policy will reduce, increase, or have no effect on variability is unclear, and this should be evaluated as the data become available. Overall, our study demonstrates that during a 6-mo period, hemoglobin levels in almost 90% of patients seem to be in flux across the K/DOQI target boundaries such that cross-sectional assessment of anemia management cannot give an accurate picture of anemia treatment.

Forty percent of patients seem to have large fluctuations in hemoglobin levels, which may represent some type of cycling, intercurrent morbidity events, or overcorrection of low hemoglobin levels. The instability of patient hemoglobin levels may have significant implications in outcome studies that attempt to assess hemoglobin levels as they relate to morbidity, mortality, and cost.

The exact relationship between provider practices in changing epoetin dosages and comorbidity events and patterns of fluctuation needs further investigation. At a minimum, anemia treatment seems to be very complex, and hemoglobin levels at any single point in time should be viewed cautiously because they are likely to change.

Furthermore, hemoglobin levels that are averaged over time also may be inaccurate because the averages do not account for changing levels in almost 90% and large changes in 40% of the hemodialysis population. Investigators need to address these complex issues before any clarity can be brought to the relationship between anemia treatment and associated morbidity and mortality.
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What fruit is highest in iron?

13. Mulberries – Mulberries are a type of fruit with a particularly impressive nutritional value. Not only do they offer around 2.6 mg of iron per cup — 14% of the DV — but this quantity of mulberries also meets 57% of the DV for vitamin C ( 56 ). Mulberries are a great source of antioxidants as well, which may offer protection against heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer ( 57 ).
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Is milk good for hemoglobin?

Background – Anemia, low blood hemoglobin concentration, is a major public health concern worldwide affecting about two billion people. Populations from poor resource settings are the most affected. Anemia is associated with higher risk of mortality, low physical and mental development, and compromised productivity in adults.

Multiple, often coexisting, factors including consumption of foods with low concentration of or poorly bioavailable micronutrients, parasitic infection, chronic and acute infections, malaria, heavy blood loss, and higher physiological demands for iron at certain life stages for hemoglobin synthesis contribute to low blood hemoglobin concentration,

Poor access to clean drinking water, suboptimal sanitation and hygienic facilities are also associated with incidence of anemia through attack by pathogens, In addition, anemia could develop because of hemoglobin disorders (such as sickle cell disease and thalassemias), chronic disease such as AIDS and tuberculosis,

Anemia is highly prevalent in populations from Somali and Afar Regions of Ethiopia which are predominantly pastoralist. The Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) shows that about 83% of children (aged 6–59 mo) and 60% of women in Somali Region are anemic, while the national average prevalence of anemia is 57% in children and 24% in women of reproductive age,

Similarly, a study on the spatial distribution of anemia among all regions of Ethiopia using consecutive three time point (2005, 2011, and 2016) EDHS data reported the highest percentage of maternal anemia in Somali region, Cow milk is an important source of key nutrients.

  • However, several available studies indicated that cow milk consumption could be a risk factor for low hemoglobin concentration in young children,
  • A study in Brazil also reported a positive association between milk consumption and anemia prevalence in infants,
  • This is mainly attributed to the low iron content but excess amount of casein and calcium in cow milk.

Casein in milk chelates iron by binding with phosphoserine residues preventing the release of iron in a free form consequently impairing intestinal absorption, In addition, calcium inhibits heme and non-heme iron absorption in a dose-dependent manner,

  1. On the other hand, camel milk contains greater iron concentration than cow milk (1.35–2.5mg/L vs 0.3–0.8mg/L),
  2. In addition, the majority of iron is associated with the lower molecular fraction of casein suggesting better bioavailability to increase iron store and hemoglobin synthesis,
  3. Furthermore, vitamin C concentration is more than three-fold in camel milk than cow milk,

Vitamin C inherent to the food or added from external sources enhance iron absorption from non-heme sources by reducing ferric iron into the readily bioavailable form- ferrous iron. Vitamin C can also overcome the iron absorption inhibition effect due to high calcium and proteins in milk,
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Which food gives more hemoglobin?

In order to keep your haemoglobin in check and to ensure your body cells are functioning well, we suggest some foods that may help increase haemoglobin. – As per Nutritionist Sujetha Shetty, “Consuming foods that are rich in iron, folic acid and vitamin B-12 help in maintaining haemoglobin levels.
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How fast can hemoglobin increase?

According to Ershler, “It is very important to follow up with your patients after starting oral iron therapy. Compliance is a huge problem; many patients simply cannot take oral iron. Asking patients specific questions about how, when, and how often they take their iron therapy coupled with a laboratory work-up will help determine compliance.

  1. Patients who are unable to complete a course of oral iron can be treated with an intravenous iron agent.
  2. The newer IV irons are safe and effective and an excellent alternative for these patients.” The effectiveness of iron supplementation is determined by measuring laboratory indices, including reticulocyte count, hemoglobin and ferritin levels.

The reticulocyte hemoglobin content in picograms is an early indicator of a response to iron therapy, increasing within a few days of initiating therapy. Hemoglobin usually increases within 2-3 weeks of starting iron supplementation. Therapeutic doses of iron should increase hemoglobin levels by 0.7-1.0 g/dL per week.

  1. Reticulocytosis occurs within 7-10 days after initiation of iron therapy.7 Serum ferritin level is a more accurate measure of total body iron stores.
  2. Adequate iron replacement has typically occurred when the serum ferritin level reaches 100 µg/L.
  3. If patients with iron deficiency anemia do not begin to respond to iron supplementation within a few weeks, the patient should be re-evaluated for blood loss, noncompliance or poor absorption.

One common reason for iron therapy treatment failure is ineffective iron intake. This could be due to non-compliance, under-dosing, or a failure to absorb iron from the supplement. Iron uptake and absorption may be impaired by malabsorption states, as well as the concomitant use of medications and ingestion of foods that inhibit iron absorption.7 Some of the factors that affect the absorption of iron supplements are listed in the next section.
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Which fruit is best for hemoglobin?

Other Tips to Increase Your Hemoglobin Levels at Home: –

Rely on Fruits: Apricots, apples, grapes, bananas, pomegranates and watermelons play a very important role in improving hemoglobin count. Apples are a delicious and suitable option when it comes to Increasing hemoglobin levels as they’re one of the most iron-rich fruits out there. Pomegranate is a rich source of both iron and calcium along with protein and fiber. Its nutritional value makes it a perfect source for people with low levels of hemoglobin. Add these fruits to increase hemoglobin to your bowl of cereal or oatmeal, or add them to your salads for a little sweetness, or put them in your milkshakes, smoothies or fruit juices.

Consume food cooked in iron utensils: This is because an iron utensil fortifies your food with iron, making it potent for people suffering from low hemoglobin levels.

Take help of Vitamin C Rich Foods: Include vitamin C in your diet as it helps your body to absorb iron more efficiently. Eat more gooseberry, oranges, lemon, sweet lime, strawberries, bell peppers, tomatoes, grapefruits, berries, as they are super rich in vitamin C. Make it a habit of consuming these natural sources of Vitamin C regularly.

Avoid iron blockers: Cut down eating foods that hinder iron absorption in your body, especially if you have a low haemoglobin count. Limit the intake of haemoglobin foods rich in polyphenols, tannins, phytates and oxalic acid such as tea, coffee, cocoa, soy products, wine, beer, cola and aerated drinks.

Opt for moderate to high intensity workouts: When you exercise, your body produces more hemoglobin to meet the increasing demand for oxygen throughout the body.

Add supplements when needed: Some cases of low hemoglobin count can’t be fixed through diet alone. You may need to take oral iron supplements or additional treatments. Before you start taking an iron supplement, consult your doctor.

Make sure to get your on a timely basis. This helps detect any lower levels well in advance and take appropriate measures. Like Like Love Haha Wow Sad Angry : How to Increase Haemoglobin? Top Foods That can Increase Haemoglobin Naturally | Metropolis TruHealth Blog
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How long does it take for hemoglobin to return to normal?

Duration of treatment — Treatment with oral iron is recommended for as long as it takes the hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), and usually the tests of iron stores, to return to normal. Typically this takes approximately six months with oral iron.
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What causes hemoglobin to rise quickly?

A high hemoglobin count occurs most commonly when your body requires an increased oxygen-carrying capacity, usually because:

  1. You smoke
  2. You live at a high altitude and your red blood cell production naturally increases to compensate for the lower oxygen supply there

High hemoglobin count occurs less commonly because:

  1. Your red blood cell production increases to make up for chronically low blood oxygen levels due to poor heart or lung function.
  2. Your bone marrow produces too many red blood cells.
  3. You’ve taken drugs or hormones, most commonly erythropoietin (EPO), that stimulate red blood cell production. You’re not likely to get a high hemoglobin count from EPO given to you for chronic kidney disease. But EPO doping — getting injections to enhance athletic performance — can cause a high hemoglobin count.

If you have a high hemoglobin count without other abnormalities, it’s unlikely to indicate a related serious condition. Conditions that can cause a high hemoglobin count include:

  1. Congenital heart disease in adults
  2. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) worsening of symptoms
  3. Dehydration
  4. Emphysema
  5. Heart failure
  6. Kidney cancer
  7. Liver cancer
  8. Polycythemia vera

Causes shown here are commonly associated with this symptom. Work with your doctor or other health care professional for an accurate diagnosis.
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